Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New survey of DNA alterations could aid search for cancer genes

30.09.2013
Scanning the DNA of nearly 5,000 tumor samples, a team led by scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute has identified 140 regions of scrambled genetic code believed to contain many undiscovered cancer genes.

The researchers said the mapping of the abnormal regions gives cancer scientists a starting point from which to search for as-yet undiscovered oncogenes and broken tumor-suppressor genes, which allow cells to divide and grow uncontrollably.

Published in the October issue of Nature Genetics, the results are part of an ongoing international research effort to define the landscape of DNA mutations and other genetic changes that fuel the development of cancer.

The authors said it is the largest analysis to date of the role of DNA "copy number alterations" across several types of cancer. Normal cells carry two copies of the 20,000 genes that make up the genome. The genomes of cancer cells typically are riddled with areas where genetic sequences are duplicated or deleted; in fact, copy number alterations affect more of the genome than any other DNA abnormality in cancer. The study's goal was to identify patterns of copy number alterations and determine how they promote cancer.

In the survey of 4,934 cancers of 11 types, "we found that cancers often undergo doubling of the entire genomes, followed by large numbers of smaller copy number alteration events," said Rameen Beroukhim, MD, PhD, assistant professor of Medicine at Dana-Farber and an associate member of the Broad Institute. "We also saw a propensity of copy number changes to occur at telomeres [the tips of chromosomes] and they exhibit features indicating they arise from different mechanisms than copy number changes of regions within chromosomes."

Beroukhim is co-senior author of the report along with Matthew Meyerson, MD, PhD, of Dana-Farber and the Broad, and Gad Getz, PhD, of Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad.

The analysis also revealed 70 regions of the cancer genome that undergo duplications –also known as amplifications – more often than would be expected by chance and 70 regions that contain deletions more often than would be expected by chance. "We expect these 140 regions to contain a number of as-yet unknown oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes," Beroukhim said.

On average, these 140 regions included three to four genes. However, only 35 of the regions contained known oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes previously linked to cancer. "So there is a lot left to discover in the cancer genome," Beroukhim said. "These regions provide the research community a starting point to evaluate possible novel oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes." The results have been made available in a publicly accessible website, http://www.broadinstitute.org/tcga.

He added that further study of the copy number variation database generated by the researchers "will help us understand better how cancers arise and what are the genes involved. And when we understand that, we can develop diagnostics and therapeutics that counteract those genes."

The research used data compiled through The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer Initiative, part of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project led by the National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Co-first authors of the report are Travis Zack and Steven Schumacher in the Beroukhim lab at Dana-Farber.

The research was funded in part from grants from the National Institutes of Health (U24CA143867, U24CA143845, U54CA143798, U54HG003067, and U24CA143882), the V Foundation, and the Pediatric Low-Grade Astrocytoma Foundation.

—Written by Richard Saltus

About Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is a principal teaching affiliate of the Harvard Medical School and is among the leading cancer research and care centers in the United States. It is a founding member of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, designated a comprehensive cancer center by the National Cancer Institute. It provides adult cancer care with Brigham and Women's Hospital as Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center and it provides pediatric care with Boston Children's Hospital as Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. Dana-Farber is the top ranked cancer center in New England, according to U.S. News & World Report, and one of the largest recipients among independent hospitals of National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health grant funding. Follow Dana-Farber on Facebook and on Twitter.

Bill Schaller | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.dfci.havard.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Oestrogen regulates pathological changes of bones via bone lining cells
28.07.2017 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

nachricht Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Abrupt motion sharpens x-ray pulses

Spectrally narrow x-ray pulses may be “sharpened” by purely mechanical means. This sounds surprisingly, but a team of theoretical and experimental physicists developed and realized such a method. It is based on fast motions, precisely synchronized with the pulses, of a target interacting with the x-ray light. Thereby, photons are redistributed within the x-ray pulse to the desired spectral region.

A team of theoretical physicists from the MPI for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg has developed a novel method to intensify the spectrally broad x-ray...

Im Focus: Physicists Design Ultrafocused Pulses

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.

Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New 3-D imaging reveals how human cell nucleus organizes DNA and chromatin of its genome

28.07.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heavy metals in water meet their match

28.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Oestrogen regulates pathological changes of bones via bone lining cells

28.07.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>