Even today, the lives of humans and animals are claimed by plague. A new antibody-based detection method can be used to reliably and sensitively identify plague in patient serum and other biological samples.
The antibody specifically recognizes a particular carbohydrate structure found on the cell surfaces of the bacterium that causes plague, as reported by German researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
“Black death” took the lives of over 200 million humans over the course of three pandemics in the last 1500 years. More recently, cases of plague have been detected in Africa and Asia. Because of the high danger of transmission and the severity of the infection, Yersinia pestis, the pathogen behind the plague, is classified as a category A biological weapon. When inhaled as an aerosol it causes pneumonic plague, which usually results in death if it is not treated fast. Rapid and reliable diagnosis is thus critical.
“Currently, Y. pestis is detected by polymerase chain reaction based assays or traditional phenotyping,” explains Peter Seeberger of the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Potsdam. “These methods of detection are reliable, but they are also often complex, expensive, and slow.”
The recognition of surface proteins by antibodies is a highly promising and less complicated alternative method for the detection of plague, but it has a high failure rate and low selectivity with regard to related strains of bacteria.Seeberger and his team have now found a way around this problem: Gram-negative bacteria like Y. pestis have molecules called lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), made of fat and carbohydrate components, on their outer cell membranes. “The inner core of the Yersinia LPS has a unique structure that differs from that of other Gram-negative bacteria,” says Seeberger. “This could be a suitable region for detection by means of specific antibodies for rapid point-of-care diagnosis.”
Because isolation of Y. pestis LPS is a laborious undertaking, the researchers chose to synthetically produce one typical motif from the molecule, a segment consisting of three sugar molecules, each of which has a framework of seven carbon atoms. The researchers attached these segments, called triheptoses, to diphtherietoxoid CRM197, which acts as a carrier protein. This protein is a typical component of licensed vaccine formulations and triggers the formation of antibodies. The researchers immunized mice and isolated antibodies from their blood.
Various immunoassays demonstrated that the resulting antibodies detect the plague pathogen with high selectivity and sensitivity, and selectively differentiate between Y. pestis and other Gram-negative bacteria. The researchers hope to be able to use this to develop applications for patient diagnostics. The development of corresponding tests is the focus of their current research.About the Author
Author: Peter H. Seeberger, Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany), http://www.mpikg.mpg.de/177410/employee_page?employee_id=22356Title: Plague Detection by Anti-carbohydrate Antibodies
Peter H. Seeberger | Angewandte Chemie
What happens in the cell nucleus after fertilization
06.12.2016 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering