Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study Suggests Breakthrough in Controlling T Cell Activation

14.05.2014

The discovery of a crucial mechanism that controls the activation of T cells, a blood cell whose primary job is to fight infection in the body, may enable the development of new drugs to treat autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, and similar disorders in which T cells play a major role. The finding, "T Cell Receptor Signals to NF-kB Are Transmitted by a Cytosolic p62-Bcl10-Malt1-IKK Signalosome," was published in the May 13 issue of Science Signaling.

A team of Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) researchers led by Dr. Brian Schaefer, Associate Professor in USU’s Department of Microbiology and Immunology, has demonstrated that the “POLKADOTS signalosome” (named for its dot-like appearance in cells) activates a protein called “NF-kappaB” in T cells. A signalosome is a cluster of proteins that works together inside a cell to control the activity of other proteins. NF-kappaB is a protein that turns on many different T cell functions, including those that contribute to autoimmunity and rejection of transplants.

Dr. Schaefer’s team, including lead author, Dr. Suman Paul, had previously shown that the POLKADOTS signalosome, in addition to activating this protein, also limits how much NF-kappaB is turned on. Because the POLKADOTS signalosome is a major point of control for NF-kappaB activation, it may be an attractive target for the design of new drugs to block or regulate T cell functions.

Normally, T cells play a key role in maintaining health, by helping to eliminate invading disease-causing bacteria and viruses. However, in some individuals, T cells begin to react against tissues in the body, causing autoimmunity. Also, when a patient receives an organ transplant, T cells will react to that organ and cause transplant rejection, if T cell functions are not successfully blocked. There are currently only a small number of drugs available to treat autoimmunity and transplant rejection, and these drugs do not work for all patients.

Inhibiting NF-kappaB activation has long been recognized as a potentially useful strategy for blocking the T cell responses that cause autoimmunity and transplant rejection. However, because NF-kappaB is necessary for a wide variety of important processes throughout the body, directly targeting this protein would lead to many undesired and harmful side effects. Importantly, Dr. Schaefer’s group predicts that drugs that block the activity of the POLKADOTS signalosome would inhibit NF-kappaB only in T cells. This is because the POLKADOTS signalosome appears to be present only in T cells. If successfully produced, drugs that act on the POLKADOTS signalosome may be a powerful new therapy for the treatment of many different autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection.

This work was supported by grants from the U.S. NIH (Al057481), the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, and pre-doctoral fellowships from the American Heart Association (10PRE3150039) and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine.

About USU
The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, founded by an act of Congress in 1972, is the nation’s federal health sciences university and the academic heart of the Military Health System. USU students are primarily active duty uniformed officers in the Army, Navy, Air Force and Public Health Service who receive specialized education in tropical and infectious diseases, TBI and PTSD, disaster response and humanitarian assistance, global health, and acute trauma care. A large percentage of the university’s more than 5,000 physician and nearly 730 advanced practice nursing alumni are supporting operations around the world, offering their leadership and expertise. USU also has graduate programs in biomedical sciences and public health committed to excellence in research, and in oral biology. The University's research program covers a wide range of clinical and other topics important to both the military and public health. For more information about USU and its programs, visit www.usuhs.edu.

Sharon Willis | newswise
Further information:
http://www.usuhs.edu

Further reports about: Breakthrough Cell Controlling Health Medicine PTSD USU activation activity autoimmunity diseases drugs inhibit proteins rejection transplant

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Biofuel produced by microalgae
28.02.2017 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

nachricht Decoding the genome's cryptic language
27.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists reach back in time to discover some of the most power-packed galaxies

28.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Nano 'sandwich' offers unique properties

28.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Light beam replaces blood test during heart surgery

28.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>