Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study Reveals Surprising Details Of The Evolution Of Protein Translation

13.08.2008
A new study of transfer RNA, a molecule that delivers amino acids to the protein-building machinery of the cell, challenges long-held ideas about the evolutionary history of protein synthesis.

In the study, researchers report that the dual functions of transfer RNA (reading the genetic blueprint for a protein, and adding a specific amino acid to the protein as it is formed) appear to have originated independently of one another. The new findings are detailed in the July 30 Public Library of Science (PLoS) ONE.

University of Illinois crop sciences professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés and postdoctoral researcher Feng-Jie Sun made the discovery by looking for clues to the evolution of protein translation in the sequence and structure of transfer RNA (tRNA).

“Structure is highly conserved, capturing information that is evolutionarily deep,” Caetano-Anollés said. “It was only logical to focus on transfer RNA, a molecule that is believed to be very ancient and is truly central to the entire protein synthesis machinery.”

During protein synthesis, tRNA’s dual function is reflected in its unique L-shaped structure. One end of the molecule decodes messenger RNA (a molecule that carries instructions for the sequence of amino acids in a protein), while the other transfers a specific amino acid to the growing protein chain.

In previous studies, scientist assumed that the two functional domains of tRNA had evolved together. Sun and Caetano-Anollés put this assumption to the test.

They began by constructing an evolutionary family tree based on the sequence and two-dimensional structures of tRNA molecules representing every domain of life (bacteria; the microbes known as archaea; and eucarya, the domain that includes animals, plants, fungi and many other organisms) as well as viruses.

There are several dozen tRNAs (each reads a specific region of the genetic blueprint for a protein and each carries only one of the 20-plus amino acids found in proteins) so the researchers looked for clues to their evolutionary histories by comparing their physical and functional traits.

They converted the unique features of the individual tRNA cloverleaf structures into coded characters, a process that allowed a computerized search for the most parsimonious (the simplest, most probable) tRNA family trees for different organismal lineages. In this way they were able to test competing evolutionary hypotheses against the data mined from the structure of the tRNA itself.

“Our findings uniquely focus on structure, the actual aspect of the molecule that encases its function,” Caetano-Anollés said.

The analysis indicated that the two functions of the tRNA had different evolutionary histories, Sun said, which suggests that they were acquired at different points in time.

The study predicted that the loading of amino acids on tRNA molecules preceded the refinement of the genetic code into codons, the regions on the messenger RNA that are read by individual tRNAs.

“For the first time, we believe we make this distinction between the evolution of the genetic code (codon discovery) and the evolution of amino acid charging,” Sun said.

Gustavo Caetano-Anollés is an affiliate of the U. of I. Institute for Genomic Biology.

Diana Yates | University of Illinois
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University

nachricht Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers shoot for success with simulations of laser pulse-material interactions

29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Igniting a solar flare in the corona with lower-atmosphere kindling

29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

As sea level rises, much of Honolulu and Waikiki vulnerable to groundwater inundation

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>