Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study on origin of mutation that causes Fatal Familiar Insomnia

08.01.2009
A PhD thesis at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) has studied the origin of the mutation that causes Fatal Familiar Insomnia (FFI). In the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country there is a high rate of carriers of this mutation — 50%of all the cases registered in the whole of Spain.

Fatal Familiar Insomnia (FFI) is one of the diseases considered as rare — there are less than 100 cases described throughout the world. FFI prevents the patient getting to sleep to the point where she or he cannot ever sleep and which, after a number of months thus, causes death. ILF is a genetic illness caused by the D178N mutation and belonging to the group of diseases known as Transmissible Spongiform Encefalopathies (TSE).

The author of the PhD is Ms Ana Belén Rodríguez Martínez, who presented her thesis with the title, Fatal Familiar Insomnia in the Basque Country: the search for the founding effect of mutation D178N (-129M) and the effects of oxidative stress on retrospective samples. Ms Rodríguez has a degree in Biology and currently works as an associate researcher on a Neiker-Tecnalia project. She carried out her research thesis under the direction of Dr. Marian Martínez de Pancorbo, Profesor of Cell Biology at the UPV/EHU Pharmacy Faculty and of Dr. Juan José Zarranz, Head of Neurology at Cruces Hospital and Professor of Neurology in the Faculty of Medicine and Odontology at the UPV/EHU.

The undertaking of this PhD thesis has been possible thanks to the collaboration by and participation of health researchers and professionals from various spheres, both national and international (The bodies and institutions referred to are detailed at the end of the paper).

Origin of the mutation

In 1996, following on from the outbreak of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob (“mad cow”) disease, the European Union launched systems for monitoring the prionic group of illnesses — the group to which FFI belongs. It was only then that the high rate of carriers of the mutation (D178N) responsible for FFI was detected in the Basque Country Autonomous Community (with 50% of all cases registered in Spain).

The area is characterised by its mountainous orography, and which has favoured cultural and genetic isolation. These features caused researchers to think that there might be a ‘founder effect’ of the mutation in the Basque Country — ‘founder effect’ is when a new population of individuals is formed from a very small number, with a large proportion thereof carrying the same genetic characteristics.

Given this situation, three targets were set: to look for the possible founder effect of the D178N mutation amongst patients in the Basque Country; establish relations between carriers in the Basque Country with other cases in Spain and Europe; and fix the historical time of the most recent common ancestor.

Same genetic families

After studying cases of FFI in the Basque Country, the researcher observed that genetic families amongst the patients coincided with each other. She concluded, thus, that the high rate of the disorder is due to a ‘founder effect’ of the mutation in this geographical area. Moreover, genealogical data link most of the cases and fix the oldest mutation carrier generations in an area in the south of the Basque Country in the XVII and XVIII centuries.

In comparison with other regions, Dr. Rodríguez concluded that links can be established between cases in Germany and those of the Italian Veneto region, on the one hand; between Italians of Tuscany and some Spanish cases, on the other; and that not all Spanish cases have the same origin. On estimating the age of the most recent common ancestor, they were able to calculate that two of these variants of the mutation arose over 2,000 years ago.

Bodies and institutions collaborating:

The Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (CAPV)
- Epidemiological Monitoring System of the CAPV.
- Neurology Service and the Pathological Anatomy Service at Txagorritxu Hospital in Araba.
- Neurology Service, Santiago Hospital, Araba.
- Neurology Service, Cruces Hospital, Bizkaia.
- Neurology Service, Basurto Hospital, Bizkaia.
State (Spain)
- Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid.
- Immunology Service of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Biodiagnostic Unit at the Unit for Alzheimer Disease and Other Cognitive Disorders of the Hospital Clinic (Barcelona).
International
- Victor Segalen University, Bordeaux 2, France.
- National TSE Reference Centre, Göttingen, Germany.
- Department of Neurological Sciences, Bologna University, Italy.

Lucía Álvarez | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elhuyar.com
http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Berri_Kod=2013&hizk=I

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Tag it EASI – a new method for accurate protein analysis
19.06.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

nachricht How to track and trace a protein: Nanosensors monitor intracellular deliveries
19.06.2018 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Carbon nanotube optics provide optical-based quantum cryptography and quantum computing

19.06.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

How to track and trace a protein: Nanosensors monitor intracellular deliveries

19.06.2018 | Life Sciences

New material for splitting water

19.06.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>