Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

SlipChip Counts Molecules with Chemistry and a Cell Phone

19.11.2013
In developing nations, rural areas, and even one's own home, limited access to expensive equipment and trained medical professionals can impede the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Many qualitative tests that provide a simple "yes" or "no" answer (like an at-home pregnancy test) have been optimized for use in these resource-limited settings. But few quantitative tests—those able to measure the precise concentration of biomolecules, not just their presence or absence—can be done outside of a laboratory or clinical setting.


Credit: Caltech/Ismagilov Group

By leveraging their discovery of the robustness of "digital," or single-molecule quantitative assays, researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have demonstrated a method for using a lab-on-a-chip device and a cell phone to determine a concentration of molecules, such as HIV RNA molecules, in a sample.

This digital approach can consistently provide accurate quantitative information despite changes in timing, temperature, and lighting conditions, a capability not previously possible using traditional measurements.

In a study published on November 7 in the journal Analytical Chemistry, researchers in the laboratory of Rustem Ismagilov, Ethel Wilson Bowles and Robert Bowles Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, used HIV as the context for testing the robustness of digital assays. In order to assess the progression of HIV and recommend appropriate therapies, doctors must know the concentration of HIV RNA viruses in a patient's bloodstream, called a viral load.

The problem is that the viral load tests used in the United States, such as those that rely on amplification of RNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), require bulky and expensive equipment, trained personnel, and access to infrastructure such as electricity, all of which are often not available in resource-limited settings. Furthermore, because it is difficult to control the environment in these settings, viral load tests must be "robust," or resilient to changes such as temperature and humidity fluctuations.

Many traditional approaches for measuring viral load involve converting a small quantity of RNA into DNA, which is then multiplied through DNA amplification—allowing researchers to see how much DNA is present in real time after each round of amplification, by monitoring the varying intensity of a fluorescent dye marking the DNA.

These experiments—known as "kinetic" assays—result in a readout reflecting changes in intensity over time, called an amplification curve. To find the original concentration of the beginning bulk RNA sample, the amplification curve is then compared with standard curves representing known concentrations of RNA. Since assays, such as those for HIV, require many rounds of DNA amplification to collect a sufficiently bright fluorescent signal, small errors introduced by changes in environmental conditions can compound exponentially—meaning that these kinetic measurements are not robust enough to withstand changing conditions.

In this new study, the researchers hypothesized that they could use a digital amplification approach to create a robust quantitative technique. In digital amplification, a sample is split into enough small volumes such that each well contains either a single target molecule or no molecule at all. Ismagilov and his colleagues used a microfluidic device they previously invented, called SlipChip, to compartmentalize single molecules from a sample containing HIV RNA. SlipChip is made up of two credit card-sized plates stacked atop one another; the sample is first added to the interconnected channels of the SlipChip, and with a single "slip" of the top chip, the channels turn into individual wells.

In lieu of PCR, the researchers used a different amplification chemistry on this chip called digital reverse transcription-loop-mediated amplification (dRT-LAMP), which produces a bright fluorescent signal in the presence of a target molecule during the amplification process. The dRT-LAMP technique eliminates the need for continuous tracking of the intensity of fluorescence; instead, just one end-point readout measurement is used. The resulting patchwork of "positive" or "negative" wells on the device, in combination with statistical analysis, enables single molecules to be counted.

"In each well, you are performing a qualitative experiment; the result is like a pregnancy test: either yes or no, positive or negative, for the presence of an HIV RNA molecule," says David Selck, a graduate student in Ismagilov's lab and a first author on the study. "But by doing a couple of thousand qualitative experiments, you end up getting a numerical, quantitative result: the concentration of HIV RNA molecules in the sample. By calculating the concentration from the number of wells that contain fluorescence—and therefore HIV—you're leveraging the robustness of many qualitative 'yes or no' experiments to fulfill the need for a quantitative, numerical result," he says.

When the researchers compared quantification results from dRT-LAMP to those obtained by the real-time, kinetic version of this chemistry, RT-LAMP, they found that the digital format provided accurate results despite changes in temperature and time, while the kinetic format could not. This finding adds to a body of research that the laboratory has been developing on the robustness of converting analog signals (i.e., a readout reflecting a changing concentration over time) into a series of positive or negative digital signals. Another recent paper, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, explored a variation on this analog-to-digital conversion.

Ismagilov's group also tested a way to take an image of the fluorescence pattern in the wells of the SlipChip and, from that image, determine the viral load—without the use of expensive microscopes or trained staff. They turned to a nearly ubiquitous 21st-century technology: the smartphone.

The researchers placed the SlipChip in a makeshift darkroom (a shoebox with a hole in the top) and then photographed its wells using a smartphone outfitted with a special filter attachment—so that the smartphone flash would be able to "excite" the fluorescent DNA dye, and the smartphone camera could capture an image of the fluorescence. The resulting images were uploaded to Microsoft SkyDrive, a cloud-based server, where custom software—designed by the researchers—determined the viral load concentration and sent the results back in an email. These capabilities allow the digital approach to perform reliably with automated processing, regardless of how poor the imaging conditions may be. As an example of its simplicity, a 5-year-old child was able to use this cell phone imaging method to obtain quantitative results using strands of RNA extracted from a noninfectious virus (a video of this demonstration is available on the Ismagilov lab's YouTube channel).

"We were surprised that this cell phone method worked, because both cell phone imaging and automated processing are error prone," Ismagilov says. "Because digital assays involve simply distinguishing positives from negatives, we found that even these error-prone approaches can be used to count single molecules reliably."

The fact that this method is robust not only to changes in time and temperature but also is amenable to cell phone imaging and automated processing makes it a promising technology for limited-resource settings. "We believe that our findings of the robustness of digital amplification could signal a major paradigm shift in how quantitative measurements are obtained at home, in the field, and in developing countries," Ismagilov says.

The researchers stress that there is still room for improvement, however. "While in this study we were examining robustness and used purified RNA, the next generation of devices will isolate HIV RNA molecules directly from patients' blood," says Bing Sun, a graduate student in Ismagilov's lab and a first author on the study. "We will also adapt the devices for other viruses, such as hepatitis C. By combining these improvements with the cell phone imaging method, we plan to create something that could actually be used in the real world," Sun adds.

The paper is titled "Increased Robustness of Single-Molecule Counting with Microfluidics, Digital Isothermal Amplification, and a Mobile Phone versus Real-Time Kinetic Measurements." In addition to Selck, Sun, and Ismagilov, the paper is coauthored by Mikhail A. Karymov, an associate scientist at Caltech. The work was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency award number HR0011-11-2-0006, and by the National Institutes of Health award numbers R01EB012946 and 5DP1OD003584. Microfluid technologies developed by Ismagilov's group have been licensed to Emerald BioStructures, Randance Technologies, and SlipChip LLC.

Contact:
Deborah Williams-Hedges
(626) 395-3227
mr@caltech.edu

Deborah Williams-Hedges | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.caltech.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

nachricht The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

IHP presents the fastest silicon-based transistor in the world

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

InLight study: insights into chemical processes using light

05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

High-precision magnetic field sensing

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>