Yet, the molecular pathways through which sleep deprivation wreaks its detrimental effects on the body remain poorly understood. Although numerous studies have looked at the consequences of sleep deprivation on the brain, comparatively few have directly tested its effects on peripheral organs.
There is increased ER stress in the pancreas of aged mice. Phosphorylation of PERK (P-PERK), indicative of ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response, is evident in ß-cells. Representative images of P-PERK (green) in B-cells (red) immunostained for insulin in young undisturbed (YC), young SD (YSD), old undisturbed (OC) and old sleep deprived (OSD) mice.
Credit: Nirinjini Naidoo, Ph.D., Division of Sleep Medicine: Perelman School of Medicine; Aging Cell
During sleep deprivation cells upregulate the UPR – the unfolded protein response – a process where misfolded proteins get refolded or degraded.
Five years ago, researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, showed that the UPR is an adaptive response to stress induced by sleep deprivation and is impaired in the brains of old mice. Those findings suggested that inadequate sleep in the elderly, who normally experience sleep disturbances, could exacerbate an already-impaired protective response to protein misfolding that happens in aging cells. Protein misfolding and clumping is associated with many diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, noted Nirinjini Naidoo, Ph.D., research associate professor in the Division of Sleep Medicine in that study.
Naidoo is also senior author of a follow-up study in Aging Cell this month that shows, for the first time, an effect of sleep deprivation on the UPR in peripheral tissue, in this case, the pancreas. They showed that stress in pancreatic cells due to sleep deprivation may contribute to the loss or dysfunction of these cells important to maintaining proper blood sugar levels, and that these functions may be exacerbated by normal aging.
"The combined effect of aging and sleep deprivation resulted in a loss of control of blood sugar reminiscent of pre-diabetes in mice," says Naidoo. "We hypothesize that older humans might be especially susceptible to the effects of sleep deprivation on the disruption of glucose homeostasis via cell stress."
Working with Penn colleague Joe Baur, Ph.D., assistant professor of Physiology, Naidoo started a collaboration to look at the relationship of sleep deprivation, the UPR, and metabolic response with age. Other researchers had suggested that the death of beta cells associated with type 2 diabetes may be due to stress in a cell compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR is one part of the quality control system in the ER, where some proteins are made.
Knowing this, Naidoo and Baur asked if sleep deprivation (SD) causes ER stress in the pancreas, via an increase in protein misfolding, and in turn, how this relates to aging.
The team examined tissues in mice for cellular stress following acute SD, and they also looked for cellular stress in aging mice. Their results show that both age and SD combine to induce cellular stress in the pancreas.
Older mice fared markedly worse when subjected to sleep deprivation. Pancreas tissue from older mice or from young animals subjected to sleep deprivation exhibited signs of protein misfolding, yet both were able to maintain insulin secretion and control blood sugar levels. Pancreas tissue from acutely sleep-deprived aged animals exhibited a marked increase in CHOP, a protein associated with cell death, suggesting a maladaptive response to cellular stress with age that was amplified by sleep deprivation.
Acute sleep deprivation caused increased plasma glucose levels in both young and old animals. However, this change was not overtly related to stress in beta cells, since plasma insulin levels were not lower following acute lack of sleep.
Accordingly, young animals subjected to acute sleep deprivation remained tolerant to a glucose challenge. In a chronic sleep deprivation experiment, young mice were sensitized to insulin and had improved control of their blood sugar, whereas aged animals became hyperglycemic and failed to maintain appropriate plasma insulin concentrations.
While changes in insulin secretion are unlikely to play a major role in the acute effects of SD, cellular stress in pancreatic tissue suggests that chronic SD may contribute to the loss or dysfunction of endocrine cells, and that these effects may be exacerbated by normal aging, say the researchers.
This study was supported in part by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (DK19525) and the National Institute on Aging (AG23500), and the Ellison Medical Foundation. Baur is also a member of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism at Penn.
This work was also sponsored by the Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology (CSCN) at Penn and Naidoo is a member of the CSCN.
Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4.3 billion enterprise.
The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States for the past 16 years, according to U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $398 million awarded in the 2012 fiscal year.
The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania -- recognized as one of the nation's top "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; Chester County Hospital; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital -- the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751. Additional affiliated inpatient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region include Chestnut Hill Hospital and Good Shepherd Penn Partners, a partnership between Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network and Penn Medicine.
Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2012, Penn Medicine provided $827 million to benefit our community.
Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
Link Discovered between Immune System, Brain Structure and Memory
26.04.2017 | Universität Basel
Researchers develop eco-friendly, 4-in-1 catalyst
25.04.2017 | Brown University
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy