Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Singapore Scientists Lead in 3D Mapping of Human Genome to Help Understand Human Diseases

Genome Institute of Singapore's (GIS) Associate Director of Genomic Technologies, Dr Yijun RUAN, led a continuing study on the human genome spatial/structural configuration, revealing how genes interact/communicate and influence each other, even when they are located far away from each other. This discovery is crucial in understanding how human genes work together, and will re-write textbooks on how transcription regulation and coordination takes place in human cells.

The discovery was published in Cell, on 19 January 2012. The GIS is a research institute under the umbrella of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR).

Using a genomic technology invented by Dr Ruan and his team, called ChIA-PET, the Singapore-led international group, which is part of the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) consortium, uncovered some of the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the gene expression in human cells.

"Scientists have always tried to understand how the large number of genes in an organism is regulated and coordinated to carry out the genetic programs encoded in the genome for cellular functions in our cells. It had been viewed that genes in higher organisms were individually expressed, while multiple related genes in low organisms like bacteria were arranged linearly together as operon and transcribed in single unit," Dr Ruan explained.

"The new findings in this study revealed that although genes in human genomes are located far away from each other, related genes are in fact organised through long-range chromatin interactions and higher-order chromosomal conformations. This suggests a topological basis akin to the bacteria operon* system for coordinated transcription regulation. This topological mechanism for transcription regulation and coordination also provides insights to understand genetic elements that are involved in human diseases."

GIS' executive director Prof Huck Hui NG said: "This is an important study that sheds light on the complex regulation of gene expression. Yijun's team continues to use the novel method of Chromatin Interaction Analysis with Paired-End-Tag sequencing to probe the higher order interactions of chromatin to discover new regulatory interactions between genes."

"This publication describes ground-breaking work by Dr Yijun Ruan and his team at Genome Institute of Singapore," added Dr Edward Rubin, Director of the Joint Genome Institute in US. "They address the fundamental question of how communication occurs between genes and their on and off switches in the human genome. Using a long range DNA mapping technology called ChIA-PET, the study reveals in three dimensional space that genes separated linearly by enormous distances in the human genome can come to lie next to each other in the cell when it is time for them to become active.

"I expect this study to move rapidly from primary scientific literature to textbooks describing for future students the operating principles of the human genome. The ChIA-PET technology, that is the telescope used in this exploration of the human genome, is an innovative and powerful molecular technology invented by Dr Ruan and his collaborators."

The ENCODE is an ongoing project which was awarded to Dr Ruan's team by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), an institute belonging to the National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA). The project was set up in 2003 with the aim of discovering all functional elements in the human genome to gain a deeper understanding of human biology and develop new strategies for preventing and treating diseases. So far Dr Ruan's team has received over US$2 million towards this project.

*In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single regulatory signal or promoter.

Notes to the Editor:

Research publication:
The research findings described in the press release can be found in the 19 January 2011 advanced online issue of Cell under the title "Extensive Promoter-Centered Chromatin Interactions Provide a Topological Basis for Transcription Regulation".
Guoliang Li (1,10), Xiaoan Ruan (1,10), Raymond K. Auerbach (2,10), Kuljeet Singh Sandhu (1,10), Meizhen Zheng (1), Ping Wang (1), Huay Mei Poh (1), Yufen Goh (1), Joanne Lim (1), Jingyao Zhang (1), Hui Shan Sim (1), Su Qin Peh (1), Fabianus Hendriyan Mulawadi (1), Chin Thing Ong (1), Yuriy L. Orlov (1), Shuzhen Hong (1), Zhizhuo Zhang (3), Steve Landt (4), Debasish Raha (4), Ghia Euskirchen (4), Chia-Lin Wei (1), Weihong Ge (5), Huaien Wang (6), Carrie Davis (6), Katherine Fisher (7), Ali Mortazavi (7), Mark Gerstein (2), Thomas Gingeras (6), Barbara Wold (7), Yi Sun (5), Melissa J. Fullwood (1), Edwin Cheung (1,8), Edison Liu (1), Wing-Kin Sung (1,3), Michael Snyder (4,*), and Yijun Ruan (1,9,*).
1. Genome Institute of Singapore, 138672, Singapore
2. Program in Computational Biology and Departments of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
3. Department of Computer Science, School of Computing, National University of Singapore, 117417, Singapore
4. Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
5. Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
6. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11797, USA
7. Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
8. School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551
9.. College of Life Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
10. These authors contributed equally to this work
*Correspondence: (M.S.), (Y.R.)
About the Genome Institute of Singapore
The Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) is an institute of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR). It has a global vision that seeks to use genomic sciences to improve public health and public prosperity. Established in 2001 as a centre for genomic discovery, the GIS will pursue the integration of technology, genetics and biology towards the goal of individualized medicine. The key research areas at the GIS include Systems Biology, Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Cancer Biology & Pharmacology, Human Genetics, Infectious Diseases, Genomic Technologies, and Computational & Mathematical Biology. The genomics infrastructure at the GIS is utilized to train new scientific talent, to function as a bridge for academic and industrial research, and to explore scientific questions of high impact.

About A*STAR

The Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) is the lead agency for fostering world-class scientific research and talent for a vibrant knowledge-based and innovation-driven Singapore. A*STAR oversees 14 biomedical sciences and physical sciences and engineering research institutes, and six consortia & centres, located in Biopolis and Fusionopolis as well as their immediate vicinity.. A*STAR supports Singapore's key economic clusters by providing intellectual, human and industrial capital to its partners in industry. It also supports extramural research in the universities, and with other local and international partners. For more information about A*STAR, please visit


Winnie Lim
Genome Institute of Singapore
Office of Corporate Communications
Tel: +65 6808 8013

Winnie Lim | JCN Newswire
Further information:

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München

nachricht Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>