Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Shrub growth decreases as winter temps warm up

21.05.2014

Many have assumed that warmer winters as a result of climate change would increase the growth of trees and shrubs because the growing season would be longer. But shrubs achieve less yearly growth when cold winter temperatures are interrupted by temperatures warm enough to trigger growth.

“When winter temperatures fluctuate between being cold and warm enough for growth, plants deplete their resources trying to photosynthesize and end the winter with fewer reserves than they initially had. In the summer they have to play catch up,” said Melanie Harsch, a University of Washington postdoctoral researcher in biology and applied mathematics. She is lead author of a paper on the subject recently published in PLOS One.


Photo by Janet Wilmshurst

Dracophyllum on Campbell Island, New Zealand.


Photo by David Hollander

Discs cut from just above the shrubs’ root collar were studied to determine growth.

The roots are especially sensitive to temperature fluctuations, Harsch said. Warming winters result in higher root respiration, which uses up carbon reserves as plants make and release oxygen, leading to less carbon available during the regular growing season.

Harsch and her colleagues studied two species of shrubs on Campbell Island, an uninhabited UNESCO World Heritage site in the southwest Pacific Ocean about 375 miles south of New Zealand’s mainland. They studied two large shrubs, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium, which are evergreen broadleaf species that can grow up to about 15 feet tall and live up to 240 years.

Researchers found that while warmer, drier winters helped seedlings get established, it adversely affected growth of older plants.

“For growth to occur you need sufficient precipitation and temperature and nutrients. Growth should only happen during the summer on Campbell Island when temperatures are above 5 degrees Celsius,” Harsch said. Five degrees C is about 40 F. “On Campbell Island most winters are cool and below this 5 degrees Celsius, so the plants are not active. The plants we studied are evergreen and there is little snow cover, so they are sensitive to changes in temperature.”

In this study, researchers cut out discs, called “cookies,” from just above the shrubs’ root collar, and measured the width between each ring to determine growth. They found that plant growth decreased as winter temperatures went up.

“On Campbell Island the snow is ephemeral, so the plants usually are not covered,” Harsch said. “If we’re going to see an effect in changing winter conditions, we’re going to see it at Campbell Island decades before we see it at, say, Mt. Rainier, where there is a lot of snow and winters are colder.”

Harsch said plants in areas like Campbell Island may eventually adjust to warmer winters, but the transition period will be tough as temperatures bounce above and below what plants need to stay dormant, causing the plants to draw down their resources.

“It may eventually be warm enough in the winters so that plants can photosynthesize and grow year round, like they do in the tropics,” she said. “It’s this transition part that plants are not adapted for.”

Harsch plans to do a follow-up study that would measure the microbes and carbon reserves in the soil, and manipulate snow packs to see how it affects establishment and growth.

“How much of this can our tree species withstand?” Harsch said. “Will summer growth eventually compensate for these hard winters, or is this some sort of extra stressor on trees that will be one more nail in the coffin? If you think of all the different factors of increasing vulnerability in climate change, is this really significant? We just don’t know.”

Co-authors are Matt McGlone and Janet Wilmshurst at Landcare Research in New Zealand. Harsch started the work while pursuing her doctorate at Lincoln University in New Zealand and finished the analysis at the UW. The work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

# # #

For more information, contact Harsch at harsch.melanie@gmail.com or 253-365-1555.

NSF grant: DEB-1103734.

Doree Armstrong | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.washington.edu/news/2014/05/20/shrub-growth-decreases-as-winter-temperatures-fluctuate-up/

Further reports about: Heritage Ocean Pacific Zealand species temperature transition

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Family tree for orchids explains their astonishing variability
04.09.2015 | University of Wisconsin-Madison

nachricht Gone with the wind: A new project focusses on atmospheric input of phosphorus into the Baltic Sea
04.09.2015 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Hubble survey unlocks clues to star birth in neighboring galaxy

In a survey of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope images of 2,753 young, blue star clusters in the neighboring Andromeda galaxy (M31), astronomers have found that M31 and our own galaxy have a similar percentage of newborn stars based on mass.

By nailing down what percentage of stars have a particular mass within a cluster, or the Initial Mass Function (IMF), scientists can better interpret the light...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact Inverter for Uninterruptible Power Supplies

Silicon Carbide Components Enable Efficiency of 98.7 percent

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE have developed a highly compact and efficient inverter for use in uninterruptible power...

Im Focus: How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from University of Arizona geoscientists. The study is the first to explain how the steep-fronted plateau formed.

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from...

Im Focus: An engineered surface unsticks sticky water droplets

The leaves of the lotus flower, and other natural surfaces that repel water and dirt, have been the model for many types of engineered liquid-repelling surfaces. As slippery as these surfaces are, however, tiny water droplets still stick to them. Now, Penn State researchers have developed nano/micro-textured, highly slippery surfaces able to outperform these naturally inspired coatings, particularly when the water is a vapor or tiny droplets.

Enhancing the mobility of liquid droplets on rough surfaces could improve condensation heat transfer for power-plant heat exchangers, create more efficient...

Im Focus: Increasingly severe disturbances weaken world's temperate forests

Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.

"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Together - Work - Experience

03.09.2015 | Event News

Networking conference in Heidelberg for outstanding mathematicians and computer scientists

20.08.2015 | Event News

Scientists meet in Münster for the world’s largest Chitin und Chitosan Conference

20.08.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Ion implanted, co-annealed, screen-printed 21% efficient n-PERT solar cells with a bifaciality >97%

04.09.2015 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Casting of SiSiC: new perspectives for chemical and plant engineering

04.09.2015 | Machine Engineering

Extremely thin ceramic components made possible by extrusion

04.09.2015 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>