Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scripps Research Scientists Show Potent New Compound Virtually Eliminates HIV in Cell Culture

20.07.2012
A new study by scientists on the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute shows, in cell culture, a natural compound can virtually eliminate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells. The compound defines a novel class of HIV anti-viral drugs endowed with the capacity to repress viral replication in acutely and chronically infected cells.

The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to affect 34 million individuals worldwide, including more than 3 million children, according to the World Health Organization. Current treatment involves the use of several antiretroviral drugs, termed Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), which can extend the life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals and decrease viral load without, however, eradicating the virus.

“We know that there are reservoirs of HIV that aren’t being eliminated by current treatment and that keep replenishing the infection,” said Susana Valente, a Scripps Research biologist who led the study. “Viral production from these cellular reservoirs that harbor an integrated viral genome is not affected by current antiretroviral drugs, which only stop novel rounds of infection. The compound in the current study virtually eliminates all viral replication from already-infected cells where HIV hides.”

The new study, published in the July 20, 2012 issue of the journal Cell Host and Microbe, focused on a medically promising compound known as Cortistatin A. This natural product was isolated in 2006 from a marine sponge, Corticium simplex, discovered more than 100 years ago. In 2008, Scripps Research chemist Phil Baran and his team won the global race to synthesize the compound, presenting an efficient and economical method.

In the new study, Valente and her colleagues collaborated with the Baran lab, using a synthetic version of the compound, didehydro-Cortistatin A, to study the compound’s effect on two strains of HIV. The strains were HIV-1, the most common form of the virus, and HIV-2, which is concentrated in West Africa and some parts of Europe.

The results showed that the compound reduced viral production by 99.7 percent from primary CD4+T cells (a type of immune cell) isolated from patients without levels of the virus in their bloodstream and who had been under HAART treatment for a long period of time. When the compound was added to other antiviral treatments, it further reduced by 20 percent viral replication from CD4+T cells isolated from patients with detectable amounts of virus in their bloodstreams.

The inhibitor works by binding tightly to the viral protein known as Tat, a potent activator of HIV gene expression, effectively preventing the virus from replicating even at miniscule concentrations—making it the most potent anti-Tat inhibitor described to date, Valente said.

Another interesting feature of this compound is that withdrawal of the drug from cell culture does not result in virus rebound, which is normally observed with other antiretrovirals.

While most antiretroviral compounds block only new infections, didehydro-Cortistatin A reduces viral replication from already-infected cells, potentially limiting cell-to-cell transmission.
The new inhibitor already has a drug-like structure, is effective at very low concentrations, and has no toxicity associated with it, at least at the cellular level, the study noted

The first author of the study “Potent Suppression of Tat-dependent HIV Transcription by didehydro-Cortistatin A” is Guillaume Mousseau of Scripps Research. In addition to Valente and Baran, other authors include Mark A. Clementz, Wendy N. Bakeman, Nisha Nagarsheth, Michael Cameron, and Jun Shi of Scripps Research; and Rémi Fromentin and Nicolas Chomont of the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute.

The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Landenberger Foundation.

About The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute is one of the world's largest independent, not-for-profit organizations focusing on research in the biomedical sciences. Over the past decades, Scripps Research has developed a lengthy track record of major contributions to science and health, including laying the foundation for new treatments for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, and other diseases. The institute employs about 3,000 people on its campuses in La Jolla, CA, and Jupiter, FL, where its renowned scientists—including three Nobel laureates—work toward their next discoveries. The institute's graduate program, which awards Ph.D. degrees in biology and chemistry, ranks among the top ten of its kind in the nation. For more information, see www.scripps.edu.
For information:
Office of Communications
Tel: 858-784-8134
Fax: 858-784-8136
press@scripps.edu

Eric Sauter | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.scripps.edu

Further reports about: CD4+T Scripps T cells cell death compound culture immune cell infected cells therapy viral replication

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

nachricht Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>