1. Scientists at A*STAR’s Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN), in collaboration with Newcastle University, UK, the Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences and clinicians from multiple hospitals in Singapore, have identified a new subset of dendritic cells (DCs) in human peripheral tissue which have a critical role in activating our immune response against harmful pathogens. This research will have significant impact on the design of vaccines and other targeted immunotherapies. The scientists also showed for the first time that DC subsets are conserved between species, facilitating the translation of mouse functional DC studies to the human setting. These research findings were published in the July issue of the prestigious journal Immunity.
2. All immune responses against harmful pathogens are activated and regulated by DCs, which present antigens (protein components from micro-organisms, vaccines or tumours) to the T cells. Of the different T cells, the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells specialize in cell-killing response and are crucial for our body to eliminate cancer or infected cells. However, only a small subset of DCs is capable of presenting externally derived antigens to activate this cell-killing response through a process termed “cross-presentation”. The identity of this subset of DCs in human tissue has been a mystery but the SIgN scientists and collaborators have now identified the human cross-presenting DC subset. This discovery enables better exploitation of targeted vaccine strategies to treat cancer and infection.
3. In this paper, Dr Florent Ginhoux, Principal Investigator at SIgN and his collaborators, identified in human tissues, including dermis, lung and liver, a new subset of DCs, called CD141hi DC and described its genetic signature. They also showed for the first time that CD141hi DCs were superior at cross-presenting soluble antigens compared to other DCs to activate the killer T cells. The scientists also carried out a comparison of human and mouse DC subsets and demonstrated that there was close alignment of the DC subsets between species. Functional alignment of human and mouse DC subsets had previously been hampered by differences in surface marker expression and accessibility of equivalent sources. This detailed study now aligns the mouse and human DC networks, and will facilitate better translation of mouse DC studies to the human setting.
4. Dr Ginhoux, said, “This was technically very challenging work as we only had limited quantities of human tissue samples and limited amount of cells to work with. But we managed to obtain the full gene expression profile of tissue DC, including for this new CD141hi DC subset. This knowledge will be fundamentally important in learning how to manipulate immune responses to tumors, viruses and vaccines. Importantly, we were very fortunate to have an incredible bioinformatics team in SIgN to perform the intra and interspecies analysis of DCs from human and mouse samples. Our findings will allow scientists to draw clear inferences between mouse and human DC biology.”
5. Scientific Director of SIgN, Professor Paola Castagnoli said, “These findings will facilitate translation of basic research into clinical applications such as future rational vaccine design and targeted immunotherapies. This is a fine example of how scientists and clinicians collaborate to carry out impactful research and benefit people.”
3 Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
4 University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, University of Glasgow, UK
5 National University Hospital, Singapore
6 Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
7 KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore
8 Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
9 Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore
*Equal contribution with adjacent author
#Correspondence should be addressed to: Matthew Collin
(email@example.com) or Florent Ginhoux(Florent_Ginhoux@immunol.a-star.edu.sg)
Through this, SIgN aims to build a strong platform in basic human immunology research for better translation of research findings into clinical applications. SIgN also sets out to establish productive links with local and international institutions, and encourage the exchange of ideas and expertise between academic, industrial and clinical partners and thus contribute to a vibrant research environment in Singapore.
For more information about SIgN, please visit www.sign.a-star.edu.sg.
For more information about A*STAR, please visit www.a-star.edu.sg.
Siok Ming Ong | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > A*STAR > Biomedical > CD141hi > Human vaccine > Immunological > Immunology > SIgN > Singapore > T cells > cellular protein > clinical application > dendritic cells > harmful pathogens > health problem > human tissue > immune response > information technology > methanol fuel cells
Navigational view of the brain thanks to powerful X-rays
18.10.2017 | Georgia Institute of Technology
Separating methane and CO2 will become more efficient
18.10.2017 | KU Leuven
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
18.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy