Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists show how gene variant linked to ADHD could operate

17.08.2011
NIH study in mice shows a potential new target for the treatment of ADHD

A study using mice provides insight into how a specific receptor subtype in the brain could play a role in increasing a person's risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research, conducted by the Intramural Research Program (IRP) at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health, could also help explain how stimulants work to treat symptoms of ADHD.

Dysfunction of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype is linked to ADHD as well as other disorders characterized by decreased impulse control, including drug abuse. One subtype variant, D4.7, has been of particular interest because of its increased prevalence in those diagnosed with ADHD. However, the function of this particular variant in ADHD has been poorly understood.

In the study, published in today's Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into cells and into mice so that they could investigate differences in biological activities. The researchers found that the D4.7 variant, unlike its D4.2 and D4.4 counterparts, was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain region associated with impulsivity and symptoms of ADHD in humans.

"Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study to show how this genetic difference might translate into functional deficits seen with this disorder," said NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow. "Further research is needed to explore how this deficient interaction between receptors might be remedied, which could then lead to new medications for the treatment of ADHD."

Children with ADHD have trouble paying attention and controlling impulsive behaviors, and may be overly active, often resulting in poor school performance and social difficulties. They are also at increased risk for substance use disorders, particularly if their symptoms go untreated.

ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, and the number of children diagnosed continues to rise. According to the Center for Disease Control's National Survey of Children's Health, the number of children aged 4-17 years that were identified by their parent as ever being diagnosed with ADHD increased by 21.8 percent from 2003-2007. By 2007, nearly one in 10 children aged 4-17 years were, at some point, diagnosed with ADHD. Among children with current ADHD diagnoses, 66.3 percent were taking medication for the disorder.

The most commonly used treatment for ADHD involves administering psychostimulant medications. Although these medications alleviate some of the symptoms of ADHD, it is unclear how these compounds act within the brain to do so.

"Our results suggest that psychostimulants might reduce glutamate release by amplifying this D4/D2S interaction," said Dr. Sergi Ferre, primary author for the study. "These results might also explain why these medications are less efficient in patients with the D4.7 variant."

For more information on the use of stimulants to treat ADHD, go to www.drugabuse.gov/infofacts/ADHD.html. To learn more about ADHD symptoms, causes, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping, visit www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml.

The study, which was the result of a multinational collaboration between researchers at the NIDA IRP, institutes in Spain (the University of Barcelona, the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the University of Navarra), Mexico (the National Polytechnic Institute), and Argentina (the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research), can be found online at: www.nature.com/mp/index.html.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse is a component of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most of the world's research on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction. The Institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy and improve practice. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs of abuse and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found on the NIDA home page at www.drugabuse.gov. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDA's new DrugPubs research dissemination center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or fax or email requests to 240-645-0227 or drugpubs@nida.nih.gov. Online ordering is available at http://drugpubs.drugabuse.gov. NIDA's new media guide can be found at http://drugabuse.gov/mediaguide/.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

NIDA Press Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nih.gov

Further reports about: ADHD Abuse Drug Abuse Drug Delivery Human vaccine IRP NIH Nida health services medical research

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New application for acoustics helps estimate marine life populations
16.01.2018 | University of California - San Diego

nachricht Unexpected environmental source of methane discovered
16.01.2018 | University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

Im Focus: A thermometer for the oceans

Measurement of noble gases in Antarctic ice cores

The oceans are the largest global heat reservoir. As a result of man-made global warming, the temperature in the global climate system increases; around 90% of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gran Chaco: Biodiversity at High Risk

17.01.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Only an atom thick: Physicists succeed in measuring mechanical properties of 2D monolayer materials

17.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Fraunhofer HHI receives AIS Technology Innovation Award 2018 for 3D Human Body Reconstruction

17.01.2018 | Awards Funding

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>