A study using mice provides insight into how a specific receptor subtype in the brain could play a role in increasing a person's risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research, conducted by the Intramural Research Program (IRP) at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health, could also help explain how stimulants work to treat symptoms of ADHD.
Dysfunction of the dopamine D4 receptor subtype is linked to ADHD as well as other disorders characterized by decreased impulse control, including drug abuse. One subtype variant, D4.7, has been of particular interest because of its increased prevalence in those diagnosed with ADHD. However, the function of this particular variant in ADHD has been poorly understood.
In the study, published in today's Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into cells and into mice so that they could investigate differences in biological activities. The researchers found that the D4.7 variant, unlike its D4.2 and D4.4 counterparts, was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain region associated with impulsivity and symptoms of ADHD in humans.
"Although previous studies have shown that dysfunctional dopamine D4 receptors are implicated in ADHD, this is the first study to show how this genetic difference might translate into functional deficits seen with this disorder," said NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow. "Further research is needed to explore how this deficient interaction between receptors might be remedied, which could then lead to new medications for the treatment of ADHD."
Children with ADHD have trouble paying attention and controlling impulsive behaviors, and may be overly active, often resulting in poor school performance and social difficulties. They are also at increased risk for substance use disorders, particularly if their symptoms go untreated.
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, and the number of children diagnosed continues to rise. According to the Center for Disease Control's National Survey of Children's Health, the number of children aged 4-17 years that were identified by their parent as ever being diagnosed with ADHD increased by 21.8 percent from 2003-2007. By 2007, nearly one in 10 children aged 4-17 years were, at some point, diagnosed with ADHD. Among children with current ADHD diagnoses, 66.3 percent were taking medication for the disorder.
The most commonly used treatment for ADHD involves administering psychostimulant medications. Although these medications alleviate some of the symptoms of ADHD, it is unclear how these compounds act within the brain to do so.
"Our results suggest that psychostimulants might reduce glutamate release by amplifying this D4/D2S interaction," said Dr. Sergi Ferre, primary author for the study. "These results might also explain why these medications are less efficient in patients with the D4.7 variant."
For more information on the use of stimulants to treat ADHD, go to www.drugabuse.gov/infofacts/ADHD.html. To learn more about ADHD symptoms, causes, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping, visit www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/complete-index.shtml.
The study, which was the result of a multinational collaboration between researchers at the NIDA IRP, institutes in Spain (the University of Barcelona, the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the University of Navarra), Mexico (the National Polytechnic Institute), and Argentina (the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research), can be found online at: www.nature.com/mp/index.html.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse is a component of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most of the world's research on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction. The Institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy and improve practice. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs of abuse and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found on the NIDA home page at www.drugabuse.gov. To order publications in English or Spanish, call NIDA's new DrugPubs research dissemination center at 1-877-NIDA-NIH or 240-645-0228 (TDD) or fax or email requests to 240-645-0227 or email@example.com. Online ordering is available at http://drugpubs.drugabuse.gov. NIDA's new media guide can be found at http://drugabuse.gov/mediaguide/.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
NIDA Press Office | EurekAlert!
Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine
17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses