Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists at Mainz University decode mechanisms of cell orientation in the brain

31.07.2013
Transmembrane protein NG2 controls orientation of cell migration toward the wound / Publication in the prestigious Journal of Neuroscience

When the central nervous system is injured, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) migrate to the lesion and synthesize new myelin sheaths on demyelinated axons. Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Cell Biology at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have now discovered that a distinct protein regulates the direction and movement of OPC toward the wound.

The transmembrane protein NG2, which is expressed at the surface of OPCs and down-regulated as they mature to myelinating oligodendrocytes, plays an important role in the reaction of OPC to wounding. The results of this study have recently been published in the renowned Journal of Neuroscience.

The myelin sheath functions to electrically isolate axons of many nerve fibers and is synthesized by oligodendrocytes which mature from the OPC. In the case of injury, neural cells send out signaling molecules which attract the OPC. The NG2 protein helps OPCs to react to some of these and move in a directed and orientated fashion.

“We were able to prove in cell biological experiments that NG2 orientates OPC toward the lesion and ensures targeted OPC migration toward the wound through the regulation of cell polarity”, explained Dr. Fabien Binamé, lead author of the study. Supported by funding of the German Research Foundation (DFG), Dr. Fabien Binamé is currently carrying out his research at the Institute of Molecular Cell Biology headed by Professor Jacqueline Trotter.

“The function and mode of operation of NG2 is not yet fully understood”, added co-author Dominik Sakry, who was also involved in the study. “But it looks as if the NG2-associated regulatory mechanism becomes apparent only in cases of injury of the nervous system.”

Diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis or brain tumors go hand in hand with damage of nerve tissue. “The results of our study on NG2-mediated basic mechanisms of cell orientation and migration could aid in understanding the repair of damaged demyelinated tissue, or be important for treatment of highly active migratory brain tumors which often express high levels of NG2”, said Professor Jacqueline Trotter, head of the JGU Institute of Molecular Cell Biology.

Publication:
Fabien Binamé, Dominik Sakry, Leda Dimou, Valérie Jolivel, Jacqueline Trotter
NG2 Regulates Directional Migration of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells via Rho GTPases and Polarity Complex Proteins
Journal of Neuroscience, 26 June 2013
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5010-12.2013
Illustration:
http://www.uni-mainz.de/bilder_presse/10_zellbiologie_nervengewebe_NG2.jpg
The upper two pictures show NG2-expressing OPC in healthy nerve tissue. In comparison, the lower pictures show the altered morphology and orientation of cells in damaged nerve tissue.

ill.: Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, JGU

Further information:
Dr. Fabien Binamé / Professor Dr. Jacqueline Trotter
Institute of Molecular Cell Biology
Faculty 10: Biology
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)
D 55099 Mainz, GERMANY
phone +49 6131 39-24169 / 39-20263
fax +49 6131 39-23840
e-mail: biname@uni-mainz.de / trotter@uni-mainz.de
Weitere Informationen:
http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/16582_ENG_HTML.php
- press release ;
http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/26/10858.full
- publication in the Journal of Neuroscience

Petra Giegerich | idw
Further information:
http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Biologie/Molekulare-Zellbiologie

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>