Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Identify Critical Protein Complex in Formation of Cell Cilia

21.08.2008
An international team led by NYU Cancer Institute have identified a protein complex that regulates the formation of cilia, which are found on virtually all mature human cells and are essential to normal cell function.

The new report, published this week by Developmental Cell and selected as the featured publication of the open-access online edition, describes how three proteins work together to regulate the formation of primary cilia.

The study led by Brian Dynlacht, Ph.D., professor of pathology and director of NYU Cancer Institute Genomics Facility, investigates these antenna-like structures, once thought to be vestigial remnants of cell evolution, which have recently emerged as a focal point of research in developmental cell biology.

“We are trying to understand the regulation of processes that are fundamental to normal cell development and health in humans,” said William Y. Tsang, Ph.D., of the NYU School of Medicine and NYU Cancer Institute, and first author of the paper. “Defective cilia are implicated in a wide range of serious illnesses such as polycystic kidney disease, retinal degeneration, and neurological disorders. Inappropriate activation of signaling molecules that normally reside at the primary cilium, may lead to certain cancers.”

At the center of the process lies the protein CEP290, which normally promotes primary cilia formation in mature cells. Dr. Tsang and his colleagues discovered that a second protein, CP110, normally suppresses the function of CEP290 until cells are fully mature. At that point, CP110 is destroyed, freeing CEP290 to interact with a third protein, Rab8a, to promote cilia formation on the surface of the mature cell.

The team’s findings may help to identify potential targets for future drug design.

“Ciliogenesis is a fundamental process. These structures are found in almost every type of human cell you can imagine,” Dr. Tsang said. “If we can ever design drugs that will restore the formation and function of cilia even in the presence of CEP290 mutations, then that would be one way to cure the defects that lead to ciliary diseases.”

Research so far has been using in vitro human cell lines. However, team members from the University of Michigan and National Eye Institute have developed a mouse model with a CEP290 mutation implicated in retinal degeneration, and the NYU group is planning a study of human CEP290 mutations to see if they can correlate genotypes to their expression in specific ciliary diseases.

The authors of this study are NYU Cancer Institute scientists William Y. Tsang and Brian David Dynlacht; Carine Bossard (Centre for Genomic Regulation, Barcelona); Hemant Khanna (Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan); Johan Peränen (Institute of Biotechnology, Program in Cellular Biotechnology, University of Helsinki), Anand Swaroop (Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan / National Eye Institute, Neurobiology Neurodegeneration & Repair Laboratory, Bethesda, MD); and Vivek Malhotra (Centre for Genomic Regulation, Barcelona).

The complete article is available at: http://www.developmentalcell.com/content/article/fulltext?uid=PIIS1534580708002839

Jennifer Berman | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.nyumc.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>