Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists gear up to fight deadly snake fungal disease

16.07.2014

Researchers have developed a faster and more accurate way to test for infection with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus that is killing snakes in the Midwest and eastern United States. The test also allows scientists to monitor the progression of the infection in living snakes.

The researchers reported on the test at the 2014 Mycological Society of America Annual Meeting.


The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola threatens the last population of eastern massasauga rattlesnakes in Illinois.

Credit: Matt Allender

"We need people to know that they don't have to anesthetize an animal to collect a biopsy sample or, worse yet, euthanize snakes in order to test for the infection," said University of Illinois comparative biosciences department professor Matthew Allender, an expert in snake fungal disease. "Now we can identify the infections earlier, we can intervene earlier and we can potentially increase our success of treatment or therapy."

The new test uses quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which amplifies fungal DNA to identify the species present and measure the extent of infection.

... more about:
»INHS »PCR »bats »biopsy »fungal »fungus »infections

Researchers first took notice of Ophidiomyces (oh-FID-ee-oh-my-sees) in snakes in the mid-2000s. Today the fungus threatens the last remaining eastern massasauga (mass-uh-SAW-guh) rattlesnake population in Illinois and has been found to infect timber rattlesnakes, mud snakes, rat snakes, garter snakes, milk snakes, water snakes and racers in several states, Allender said.

"I've tested snakes from Illinois, Tennessee and Michigan, and we've tested samples from snakes in New Jersey, Georgia and Virginia," Allender said. Snakes in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio and Wisconsin have also tested positive for the fungus. (Watch a movie about the research)

Ophidiomyces consumes keratin, a key ingredient in snake scales. It can cause scabs, nodules, abnormal molting, ulcers and other disfiguring changes to snake skin. Mortality is 100 percent in Illinois massasauga rattlesnakes found with outward signs of infection, Allender said. There are only 100 to 150 massasaugas left in Illinois, he said, and about 15 percent of those are infected with the disease.

Allender also is an affiliate of the Illinois Natural History Survey, part of the Prairie Research Institute at the U. of I. He and his INHS colleague, mycologist Andrew Miller, liken this emerging fungal disease in snakes to white-nose syndrome, another fungal disease that has killed millions of North American bats. Miller and graduate student Daniel Raudabaugh recently published an analysis of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus implicated in white-nosed syndrome, and are repeating the analysis on Ophidiomyces.

"The fungus killing these snakes is remarkably similar in its basic biology to the fungus that has killed over 6 million bats," Miller said. "It occurs in the soil, seems to grow on a wide variety of substances, and possesses many of the same enzymes that make the bat fungus so deadly."

Other colleagues at the INHS, herpetologists Michael Dreslik and Chris Phillips, have been studying eastern massasauga rattlesnakes in the wild for 15 years, and are working closely with Allender to characterize both biological and health factors that lead to infection. The new qPCR test is integral to this mission, Allender said. It also will help the team develop new therapies to treat infections in snakes.

"This work is truly collaborative across disciplines, allowing the team to make advances in studying this disease that haven't been accomplished anywhere else," Allender said.

"Our qPCR is more than 1,000 times more sensitive than conventional PCR," Allender said. "We can know how many [fungal spores] are in a swab and then we can start to treat the snake and we can watch to see if that number is going down."

The researchers also are hoping to find new disinfectants that will kill the fungus so that researchers who are studying snakes in the wild will not spread it to new locales on their equipment or shoes.

"Some of our preliminary studies show that the common disinfectants that we use are not effective," Allender said. "This fungus overcomes it."

###

The Illinois Wildlife Preservation Fund Grant Program, offered through the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, provided support for this work. Funds for this program are generated through the tax check-off offered on Illinois income tax returns.

Editor's notes: To reach Matthew Allender, call 217-265-0320; email mcallend@illinois.edu.

Diana Yates | University of Illinois

Further reports about: INHS PCR bats biopsy fungal fungus infections

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Fish Oil-Diet Benefits May be Mediated by Gut Microbes
28.08.2015 | University of Gothenburg

nachricht Bio-fabrication of Artificial Blood Vessels with Laser Light
28.08.2015 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik ILT

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: OU astrophysicist and collaborators find supermassive black holes in quasar nearest Earth

A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist and his Chinese collaborator have found two supermassive black holes in Markarian 231, the nearest quasar to Earth, using observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

The discovery of two supermassive black holes--one larger one and a second, smaller one--are evidence of a binary black hole and suggests that supermassive...

Im Focus: What would a tsunami in the Mediterranean look like?

A team of European researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece. The study is published today (27 August) in Ocean Science, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Though not as frequent as in the Pacific and Indian oceans, tsunamis also occur in the Mediterranean, mainly due to earthquakes generated when the African...

Im Focus: Self-healing landscape: landslides after earthquake

In mountainous regions earthquakes often cause strong landslides, which can be exacerbated by heavy rain. However, after an initial increase, the frequency of these mass wasting events, often enormous and dangerous, declines, in fact independently of meteorological events and aftershocks.

These new findings are presented by a German-Franco-Japanese team of geoscientists in the current issue of the journal Geology, under the lead of the GFZ...

Im Focus: FIC Proteins Send Bacteria Into Hibernation

Bacteria do not cease to amaze us with their survival strategies. A research team from the University of Basel's Biozentrum has now discovered how bacteria enter a sleep mode using a so-called FIC toxin. In the current issue of “Cell Reports”, the scientists describe the mechanism of action and also explain why their discovery provides new insights into the evolution of pathogens.

For many poisons there are antidotes which neutralize their toxic effect. Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria work in a similar manner: As long as a cell...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IPA develops prototype of intelligent care cart

It comes when called, bringing care utensils with it and recording how they are used: Fraunhofer IPA is developing an intelligent care cart that provides care staff with physical and informational support in their day-to-day work. The scientists at Fraunhofer IPA have now completed a first prototype. In doing so, they are continuing in their efforts to improve working conditions in the care sector and are developing solutions designed to address the challenges of demographic change.

Technical assistance systems can improve the difficult working conditions in residential nursing homes and hospitals by helping the staff in their work and...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking conference in Heidelberg for outstanding mathematicians and computer scientists

20.08.2015 | Event News

Scientists meet in Münster for the world’s largest Chitin und Chitosan Conference

20.08.2015 | Event News

Large agribusiness management strategies

19.08.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Interstellar seeds could create oases of life

28.08.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

An ounce of prevention: Research advances on 'scourge' of transplant wards

28.08.2015 | Health and Medicine

Fish Oil-Diet Benefits May be Mediated by Gut Microbes

28.08.2015 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>