Scientists from Singapore, China and USA have identified three new susceptibility genes in a genome-wide association study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The study, led by the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS), a biomedical research institute of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), and the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Centre, identified genetic risk factors of NPC that advance the understanding of the important role played by host genetic variation in influencing the susceptibility to this cancer.
NPC is a type of cancer that forms in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, the area of the upper throat that lies behind the nose. It is particularly prevalent in southern China, such as Guangdong, with an occurrence rate of about 25 times higher than that in most regions of the world. NPC is therefore referred to as the Cantonese Cancer (Cantonese is a Chinese dialect spoken in and around the city of Guangzhou in Southern China). Led by Dr Liu Jianjun, Associate Director and Senior Group Leader of Human Genetics at the GIS, and Professor Yi-Xin Zeng, President of the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, the findings were published in Nature Genetics on May 30, 2010.
To search for the genetic risk factors for NPC, the scientists carried out a comprehensive genetic analysis of the human genome in a large clinical sample of southern Chinese descent - approximately 5,000 patients and 5,000 controls. The researchers found that the genetic variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)  and the three genes known as TNFRSF19, MDSIEVI1 and CDKN2A/2B can significantly influence a person's risk of developing NPC. The researchers also noticed that these three susceptibility genes for NPC have been reported to be involved in the development of leukemia, suggesting there might be some shared biological mechanism between the developments of these two diseases. This finding provides an important opportunity for biologists to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this cancer, and its unusual pattern of high prevalence in southern China.
Co-lead author Dr Liu Jianjun said, "Although many groups have attempted to identify the genetic risk factors of NPC, the findings of previous studies were limited by the small number of genes and clinical samples used. Because of this large-scale study of approximately 10,000 subjects in total, we are able to break through with more robust evidence compared to previous studies."
Co-lead author Prof Zeng added, "This finding confirmed the strong genetic effect of HLA locus in the risk of NPC. By using the high density of genetic markers, our finding helps to narrow down the chromosome region to search for the causative gene variant(s) associated with HLA loci. The identification of susceptibility genes involved in the risk of NPC will help to develop a model for risk prediction and then screen for high risk populations, which in turn will be helpful for early diagnosis of NPC."
Dr Malcolm Simons, Chief Scientific Officer of Simons Haplomics Limited who first discovered the association of HLA genes with NPC in Singapore in 1974, said, "This confirmatory study finalises the evidence produced over the past three decades from case-control and linkage studies of single NPC cases and of multiple case families that the HLA gene system is principally involved in risk for NPC development in Chinese. There is no longer a need to perform any more studies for evidence of the HLA association. The challenge is now to identify the location within or outside the HLA complex that underlies this genetic association or associations, and to determine whether the genetic change is required to be present on both of the pair of chromosomes (known as recessive homozygosity). The indication of three new genes contributing risk, albeit at a much lower level of significance than that of HLA, provides a focus for molecular biological analysis of these candidate risk genes".
NOTES TO THE EDITOR
 Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are cell surface glycoproteins that play a significant role in the immune system. The major HLA antigens are essential elements for immune function.
Research publication: The research findings described in the press release can be found on the Advance Online Publication (AOP) on 30 May 2010 one Nature Genetics's website under the title "A genome-wide association study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma identifies three new susceptibility loci".
Authors: Jin-Xin Bei1,2,9, Yi Li3,9, Wei-Hua Jia1,2, Bing-Jian Feng1,2,4, Gangqiao Zhou5, Li-Zhen Chen1,2, Qi-Sheng Feng1,2, Hui-Qi Low3, Hongxing Zhang5, Fuchu He5, E Shyong Tai6,7, Tiebang Kang1,2, Edison T Liu8, Jianjun Liu1,3,10 & Yi-Xin Zeng1,2,10State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, China.
A*STAR supports Singapore's key economic clusters by providing intellectual, human and industrial capital to its partners in industry. It also supports extramural research in the universities, hospitals, research centres, and with other local and international partners.About the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center
The Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center is the WHO Collaborative Center in Cancer Research, the sister hospital of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center of the United States. It also houses the South China State Key Laboratory for Cancer Research.For enquiries, please contact:
Winnie Serah Lim | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > Cancer > Chinese herbs > GIS > Genetics > Genom > HLA > Human Genetics > Human vaccine > Medicine > NPC > Nature Immunology > Singapore > genetic marker > genetic risk factors > genetic variation > information technology > nasopharyngeal carcinoma > risk factor > synthetic biology
Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society
127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
18.01.2017 | Life Sciences