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Scientists find a groovy way to influence specialisation of stem cells

19.12.2013
Researchers at Queen Mary University of London have shown for the first time that the specialised role stem cells go on to perform is controlled by primary cilia –tiny hair-like structures protruding from a cell.

Stem cells are capable of becoming any cell type within the body through the process of differentiation.

The discovery has the potential for application in the development of new therapies for a range of medical treatments where scientists aim to replace or regenerate tissues that have become diseased or dysfunctional.

Publishing in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers found that growing adult stem cells on micro-grooved surfaces disrupts the biochemical pathway that determines the length of the primary cilia. This change in length of the structure ultimately controls the subsequent behaviour of the stem cells.

“Primary cilia are a thousand times smaller than the width of a human hair and are a ubiquitous feature of most cell types but were once thought to be irrelevant. However, our research shows that they play a key role in stem cell differentiation,” explains co-author Professor Martin Knight from Queen Mary’s School of Engineering and Materials Science and the Institute of Bioengineering.

“We found it’s possible to control stem cell specialisation by manipulating primary cilia elongation, and that this occurs when stem cells are grown on these special grooved surfaces.”

Stem cells are being considered to treat a number of degenerative conditions such as arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

This work was funded by the Wellcome Trust.

‘Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells’ is published in the journal Scientific Reports on Wednesday 18 December 2013.

For more information or to arrange interviews with the authors, please contact:
Neha Okhandiar
Public Relations Manager
Queen Mary University of London
020 7882 7927
n.okhandiar@qmul.ac.uk

Queen Mary University of London is one of the UK's leading research-focused higher education institutions with some 17,840 undergraduate and postgraduate students.
A member of the Russell Group, it is amongst the largest of the colleges of the University of London. Queen Mary’s 4,000staff deliver world class degree programmes and research across 21 academic departments and institutes, within three Faculties: Science and Engineering; Humanities and Social Sciences; and the School of Medicine and Dentistry.
Queen Mary is ranked 11th in the UK according to the Guardian analysis of the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, and has been described as ‘the biggest star among the research-intensive institutions’ by the Times Higher Education.
The College has a strong international reputation, with around 20 per cent of students coming from over 100 countries. Queen Mary has an annual turnover of £300m, research income worth £90m, and generates employment and output worth £600m to the UK economy each year.

The College is unique amongst London's universities in being able to offer a completely integrated residential campus, with a 2,000-bed award-winning Student Village on its Mile End campus.

Neha Okhandiar
Public Relations Manager - Science and Engineering
Marketing and Communications
Queen Mary University of London
327 Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS
T: +44 (0)207 882 7927
M: +44 (0)788 591 2572
E: n.okhandiar@qmul.ac.uk
W: www.qmul.ac.uk/media
Tw: @QMsciencehound and @QMUL

Neha Okhandiar | Queen Mary University of London
Further information:
http://www.qmul.ac.uk/media

Further reports about: Stem cell adult stem cell cell type medical treatment stem cells

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