Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists decipher first termite genome / Investigations into development of social insects

21.05.2014

Researchers have now sequenced and analysed the genome of one termite species. The study has been published in the latest issue of the online journal "Nature Communications".

Scientists have long been doing research into how the complicated system of living together in insect colonies functions. Researchers are also looking for answers in animals' DNA. A large international group of researchers – including scientists from Münster University – have now sequenced and analysed the genome of one termite species. This means that they have now been able to compare the termites' DNA with that of ants and colony-building bees.


Soldiers of dampwood termites (Zootermopsis nevadensis)

Photo: Nina Minkley

This is of particular interest to the researchers because although termites have a similar lifestyle – they, too, form colonies and have various castes such as workers and reproductives – they are not closely related to hymenopterans, which include bees and ants. The study has been published in the latest issue of the online journal "Nature Communications".

"The analysis of the termite genome is crucial in improving our understanding of decisive steps in the evolution of insects – the development of social insects," says Dr. Nicolas Terrapon, who carried out the study, as one of its main authors, during the time he spent as a post-doc at the Institute of Evolution and Biodiversity at Münster University. "Termites", he adds, "are, in contrast to bees and ants, quite original insects and belong to the cockroaches. Our investigations will help in acquiring a better understanding of the evolution of insects in general."

... more about:
»DNA »Nature »ants »genes »insects »olfactory »role »species »sperm »termite

The scientists examined whether the evolution of sociality in various groups of insects was based on the same molecular mechanisms. In doing so, they discovered not only differences, but also things they had in common. One conspicuous difference they came across was in groups of genes involved in the maturing of the sperm in male animals. In the case of the species of termites that live in wood – Zootermopsis nevadensis (dampwood termites) – some of these genes occur more actively or in greater numbers than in the species of ants and bees hitherto examined.

The researchers assume that this reflects a special feature of their lifestyle – that while male ants and bees, for example, produce a large number of sperm just once and then die shortly after mating, male termites mate with the queen of their nest several times during their life.

Another difference is that, in comparison with the highly social hymenopterans, the dampwood termites have only a few olfactory receptors. In general, smell plays an extremely important role for social insects, not only in communication and in recognizing nest comrades, but also in looking for food. Dampwood termites, however, have a simpler lifestyle than ants, honey bees or more highly developed termites. In looking for food, for example, they do not move away from the nest and display less complex communicative behaviour. The lower number of olfactory receptors reflects this lifestyle.

The researchers did, however, also discover things they have in common. Dampwood termites, for example, have – just like ants – an especially large number of genes which play a role in immune responses. Social insects are more dependent on effective infection controls, as pathogens will otherwise spread easily in the densely populated colonies. Moreover, the scientists have found proteins which might play an important role in the development of caste-specific features – just like a similar system in honey bees.

Prof. Erich Bornberg-Bauer (Münster University), Prof. Jürgen Liebig (Arizona State University, USA), Prof. Judith Korb (Freiburg University) and Guojie Zhang (China National Genebank, BGI-Shenzen, China) were involved in the study as project leaders. Dr. Nicolas Terrapon is now engaged on research at Aix-Marseille University in France.

Original publication:

Terrapon N. et al. (2014): "Molecular traces of alternative social organization in a termite genome". Nature Communications 5; Article number: 3636, doi:10.1038/ncomms4636

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140520/ncomms4636/full/ncomms4636.html Original publication

Dr. Christina Heimken | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: DNA Nature ants genes insects olfactory role species sperm termite

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New Model of T Cell Activation
27.05.2016 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht Fungi – a promising source of chemical diversity
27.05.2016 | Leibniz-Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung und Infektionsbiologie - Hans-Knöll-Institut (HKI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Worldwide Success of Tyrolean Wastewater Treatment Technology

A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.

The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...

Im Focus: Computational high-throughput screening finds hard magnets containing less rare earth elements

Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.

The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...

Im Focus: Atomic precision: technologies for the next-but-one generation of microchips

In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.

In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...

Im Focus: Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene

Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices

Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Im Focus: Graphene: A quantum of current

When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene

In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

Challenges of rural labor markets

20.05.2016 | Event News

International expert meeting “Health Business Connect” in France

19.05.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

3-D model reveals how invisible waves move materials within aquatic ecosystems

30.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

Spin glass physics with trapped ions

30.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

Optatec 2016: Robust glass optical elements for LED lighting

30.05.2016 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>