Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Create Road Map to Metabolic Reprogramming for Aging

03.12.2012
In efforts to understand what influences life span, cancer and aging, scientists are building roadmaps to navigate and learn about cells at the molecular level.

To survey previously uncharted territory, a team of researchers at UW-Madison created an “atlas” that maps more than 1,500 unique landmarks within mitochondria that could provide clues to the metabolic connections between caloric restriction and aging.

The map, as well as the techniques used to create it, could lead to a better understanding of how cell metabolism is re-wired in some cancers, age-related diseases and metabolic conditions such as diabetes.

“It’s really a dynamic atlas for regulatory points in mitochondrial function -- there are many interesting avenues that other scientists can follow up on,” says John Denu, professor of biomolecular chemistry and leader of the Epigenetics theme at the Wisconsin Institute for Discovery (WID). “It could take years for researchers to understand what it all means, but at least now we have a list of the most important players.”

In previous experiments, it’s been shown that consuming less food increases the life span and health span in a range of organisms, from yeast and flies to mice and non-human primates. But pinpointing where and how caloric restriction affects cells at a molecular level remains the challenge.

So far, mitochondrial proteins, the molecules that command specific actions in the cell’s powerhouse organelle, are at center stage of metabolic reprogramming.

Denu and colleagues conducted earlier research on the mitochondrial protein Sirt3, where they suggested a link between Sirt3 and the benefits of caloric restriction in situations such as the prevention of age-related hearing loss.

The new research, published in the Nov. 29 issue of the journal Molecular Cell, more broadly identifies pathways in mitochondria that could be behind the re-wiring of metabolism. Their work uncovered regulatory processes that maintain mitochondrial health, control cells’ ability to metabolize fat and amino acids, as well as stimulate anti-oxidant responses. This re-wiring involves the addition or removal of two-carbon (acetylation) chemical groups within regulatory molecules called proteins.

In the study, scientists looked at liver tissue from groups of mice -- both with and without the ability to produce Sirt3. Some received a calorically restricted diet and some did not. After one year, they compared protein and acetylation changes among the groups of mice. They found Sirt3 was essential for many of the metabolic adaptations that occur during calorie restriction. These results suggest that therapies, including diet or drugs that enhance Sirt3 function, might provide novel interventions to fend off age-related illnesses.

Joshua Coon, professor of chemistry and biomolecular chemistry at UW-Madison and co-author of the paper, crafted a new technique to find these molecular sites. While the genome plays a key role in an organism’s health, he points out that studying proteins -- the molecular machines that carry out an organism’s original genetic instructions -- can be more accurate in revealing how a gene functions.

“We’ve taken dozens of primary tissues and profiled their protein content with depth to learn how they vary,” Coon says. “With that information, we have direct knowledge at the molecular level of how an organism is dealing with adaption to diet, or potentially, a given disease state.”

He says using mass spectrometry to look for acetylated proteins from tissue samples is a more fruitful approach to identify relevant physiological changes. The study, he says, is one of the first of many that will create descriptive maps for other disease models.

To expand access to these enabling technologies across campus, Coon plans to launch the Wisconsin Center for Collaborative Proteomics in 2013. The center has received significant support from the UW and is pending further support via federal funding.

-- Marianne English, 608-316-4687, menglish@discovery.wisc.edu

John Denu, 608-316-4341, jmdenu@wisc.edu; Joshua Coon, 608-263-1718, jcoon@chem.wisc.edu

Marianne English | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood
23.02.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht New Mechanisms of Gene Inactivation may prevent Aging and Cancer
23.02.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'

23.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

'Quartz' crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field

23.02.2017 | Earth Sciences

Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood

23.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>