Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientist Reports New Species of Giant Amazonian Fish

16.10.2013
Discovery highlights hazards of relocating animals among habitats

A new species of the giant fish arapaima has been discovered from the central Amazon in Brazil, raising questions about what other species remain to be discovered and highlighting the potential for ecological problems when animals are relocated from their native habitats.


These arapaima, which were photographed in a public aquarium in the Ukraine, appear to be the new species recently described by Dr. Donald Stewart of SUNY-ESF. They clearly show the elongated sensory cavity as a dark bar on the lower side of the head, a feature that is known only for A. leptosoma.

“Everybody for 160 years had been saying there’s only one kind of arapaima. But we know now there are various species, including some not previously recognized. Each of these unstudied giant fishes needs conservation assessment,” said Dr. Donald Stewart of the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF), who made the discovery.

The discovery was reported in a paper Stewart recently published in the journal “Copeia.”

For two centuries, arapaima have been among the most important commercial fishes in freshwaters of the Amazon. “Arapaima have high economic, cultural and scientific value, but their diversity has been overlooked for too long,” Stewart said.

Four species of arapaima were recognized in the mid-1800s, but in 1868, Albert Günther, a scientist at the British Museum of Natural History, published an opinion that those were all one species, Arapaima gigas. Over time, Günther’s view became the prevailing wisdom.

“Until this year, no taxonomist has questioned Günther’s opinion about these iconic fishes,” Stewart wrote.

That lack of inquiry changed, however, when Stewart began studying the genus in Guyana and Brazil. “If you’re going to do conservation biology, you have to be sure about the taxonomy of the animals being studied,” he said. “If each study area has a different species, then results from one area should not be applied to manage populations in the next area.”

Delving into scientific literature from the 19th century and examining original specimens preserved at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, Stewart concluded that all four of those originally described species were, in fact, distinct. Stewart re-described one of those original species (in a paper published in the March issue of “Copeia”) and summarized status of the other three species. Stewart’s most recent discovery came when he examined preserved arapaima at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia in Manaus, Brazil. This new description brings the total number of species to five.

The recently identified specimen was collected in 2001 near the confluence of the Solimões and Purus rivers in Amazonas State, Brazil. It is distinguished from all other arapaima by several characteristics, including the shape of sensory cavities on the head, a sheath that covers part of the dorsal fin and a distinctive color pattern. Its scientific name, A. leptosoma, is in reference to its slender body.

“Failure to recognize that there are multiple species has consequences that are far reaching,” Stewart said. “For example, there is a growing aquaculture industry for arapaima, so they are being moved about and stocked in ponds for rearing. Eventually pond-reared fishes escape and, once freed, the ecological effects are irreversible. A species that is endangered in its native habitat may become an invasive species in another habitat. The bottom line is that we shouldn't be moving these large, predatory fishes around until the species and their natural distributions are better known. Given the uncertainties, precaution is needed.”

There is also the problem that arapaima are the most historically overexploited fishes of the Amazon Basin, having been subjected to intense and largely uncontrolled fishing pressure for at least a century. “Abundances of arapaima in large expanses of their natural habitat today are near-zero, largely as a consequence of overfishing,” said Dr. Leandro Castello, an authority on arapaima in Brazil. “The likely impacts of this magnitude of overfishing on species diversity are not good.”

Stewart said the newly discovered species is on display in a public aquarium in the Ukraine, where it was identified as Arapaima gigas, the single name that has been applied to all arapaima for the past 140 years. It thus appears this new species already is being cultured and exported from South America, but under the wrong name.

Stewart’s work was supported by ESF and the National Geographic Society.

Claire B. Dunn | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.esf.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Building a brain, cell by cell: Researchers make a mini neuron network (of two)
23.05.2018 | Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo

nachricht Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals
23.05.2018 | Brown University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Building a brain, cell by cell: Researchers make a mini neuron network (of two)

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

One-way roads for spin currents

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

A simple mechanism could have been decisive for the development of life

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>