Both studies are in the current issue of Cell Transplantation, freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/.
New perspectives on role of bone marrow stem cells in islet transplantation
The role of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells in the islet cell regeneration process continues to evolve. A team of Italian researchers reports that employing BM-derived stem cells as "feeder tissue," playing a protective role in supporting pancreatic islet repair for clinical use in treating diabetes, presents new therapeutic possibilities. Which cellular components of BM play the feeder role has not been clear.
"BM-derived cells have been found to differentiate into endothelial cells and their presence has been accompanied by a proliferation of recipient pancreatic cells that resulted in increased insulin production in the host pancreas," said corresponding author Dr. Lorenzo Piemonti.
The researchers speculate that BM plays a role as feeder tissue by modulating, or enhancing, vascularization.
"We recently demonstrated that pancreatic mensenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) originate from bone marrow cells," added Dr. Piemonti. "This suggests that there might be a 'cross talk' between bone marrow cells and the pancreas. Even more complex is the question of whether BM-pancreas cross talk plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes."
For the researchers, the 'easy availability' of BM, and that BM may offer "the ideal microenvironment for islet survival," suggest that exploring the possibility of using BM as the site for islet transplantation and they have started a clinical trial aimed at expanding on that idea.
"There is mounting evidence that BM and BM-derived stem cells can participate in the regeneration of pancreatic isolates," concluded Dr. Piemonti. "Future studies should evaluate their effect for the prevention and cure of diabetes should it be verifiable that there is a cross talk between BM and the pancreas."Contact: Dr. Lorenzo Piemonti, Diabetes Research Institute, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Oligettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
Improving pancreatic islet culture and preservation
Retrieving and preserving islet cells taken from nonliving donors for the purpose of islet cell transplantation to regenerate islet cells for patients suffering from diabetes is a current and successful practice. However, ensuring the integrity of the donor cells has been problematic.
"Following human islet isolation, apoptosis, or programmed cell death, occurs," said Dr. Maryam Tabrizian, member of a McGill University (Canada) research team. "Studies have shown that islet isolation exposes islets to a variety of stresses, including loss of vasculature and eventual hypoxia. These factors must be controlled to avoid cell death and the optimization of islet culture must be assured to prolong the survival and functionality of the cells in vitro."
According to the research team, nearly half of the islet mass is lost during donor surgery, preservation, transport and isolation, causing patients to undergo a second islet cell infusion. Better avenues of post-isolation culture, for up to two months duration, are needed, they said. This requires a better understanding of islet biology and the "basement membrane" of islet tissue. The researchers recommend combining many strategies supporting understanding of the need to maintain islet structural integrity and to provide a viable environment for islet preservation.
"Manipulation of the culture media, surface modified substrates, and the use of various techniques, such as encapsulation, embedding, scaffold and bioreactor approaches are among those strategies," concluded the researchers.
"The survival of islets after isolation remains a significant limiting factor in the field of islet transplantation." commented Dr. Rodolfo Alejandro, section editor for CELL TRANSPLANTATION and Professor of Medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. The prevention and repair of islet damage during isolation is of paramount importance. These two studies discuss novel approaches for this problem.Contact: Dr. Maryam Tabrizian, Duff Medical Building, 3775 University St. Room 313, Montreal, Canada QC H3A 2B4.
The editorial offices for Cell Transplantation are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Contact, David Eve, PhD. at firstname.lastname@example.org or Camillo Ricordi, MD at email@example.com
David Eve | EurekAlert!
Kidney tumor: Genetic trigger discovered
18.06.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
New type of photosynthesis discovered
18.06.2018 | Imperial College London
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...
Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.
From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
18.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
18.06.2018 | Process Engineering
18.06.2018 | Life Sciences