Both studies are in the current issue of Cell Transplantation, freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/.
New perspectives on role of bone marrow stem cells in islet transplantation
The role of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells in the islet cell regeneration process continues to evolve. A team of Italian researchers reports that employing BM-derived stem cells as "feeder tissue," playing a protective role in supporting pancreatic islet repair for clinical use in treating diabetes, presents new therapeutic possibilities. Which cellular components of BM play the feeder role has not been clear.
"BM-derived cells have been found to differentiate into endothelial cells and their presence has been accompanied by a proliferation of recipient pancreatic cells that resulted in increased insulin production in the host pancreas," said corresponding author Dr. Lorenzo Piemonti.
The researchers speculate that BM plays a role as feeder tissue by modulating, or enhancing, vascularization.
"We recently demonstrated that pancreatic mensenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) originate from bone marrow cells," added Dr. Piemonti. "This suggests that there might be a 'cross talk' between bone marrow cells and the pancreas. Even more complex is the question of whether BM-pancreas cross talk plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes."
For the researchers, the 'easy availability' of BM, and that BM may offer "the ideal microenvironment for islet survival," suggest that exploring the possibility of using BM as the site for islet transplantation and they have started a clinical trial aimed at expanding on that idea.
"There is mounting evidence that BM and BM-derived stem cells can participate in the regeneration of pancreatic isolates," concluded Dr. Piemonti. "Future studies should evaluate their effect for the prevention and cure of diabetes should it be verifiable that there is a cross talk between BM and the pancreas."Contact: Dr. Lorenzo Piemonti, Diabetes Research Institute, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Oligettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
Improving pancreatic islet culture and preservation
Retrieving and preserving islet cells taken from nonliving donors for the purpose of islet cell transplantation to regenerate islet cells for patients suffering from diabetes is a current and successful practice. However, ensuring the integrity of the donor cells has been problematic.
"Following human islet isolation, apoptosis, or programmed cell death, occurs," said Dr. Maryam Tabrizian, member of a McGill University (Canada) research team. "Studies have shown that islet isolation exposes islets to a variety of stresses, including loss of vasculature and eventual hypoxia. These factors must be controlled to avoid cell death and the optimization of islet culture must be assured to prolong the survival and functionality of the cells in vitro."
According to the research team, nearly half of the islet mass is lost during donor surgery, preservation, transport and isolation, causing patients to undergo a second islet cell infusion. Better avenues of post-isolation culture, for up to two months duration, are needed, they said. This requires a better understanding of islet biology and the "basement membrane" of islet tissue. The researchers recommend combining many strategies supporting understanding of the need to maintain islet structural integrity and to provide a viable environment for islet preservation.
"Manipulation of the culture media, surface modified substrates, and the use of various techniques, such as encapsulation, embedding, scaffold and bioreactor approaches are among those strategies," concluded the researchers.
"The survival of islets after isolation remains a significant limiting factor in the field of islet transplantation." commented Dr. Rodolfo Alejandro, section editor for CELL TRANSPLANTATION and Professor of Medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. The prevention and repair of islet damage during isolation is of paramount importance. These two studies discuss novel approaches for this problem.Contact: Dr. Maryam Tabrizian, Duff Medical Building, 3775 University St. Room 313, Montreal, Canada QC H3A 2B4.
The editorial offices for Cell Transplantation are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Contact, David Eve, PhD. at firstname.lastname@example.org or Camillo Ricordi, MD at email@example.com
David Eve | EurekAlert!
Novel mechanisms of action discovered for the skin cancer medication Imiquimod
21.10.2016 | Technische Universität München
Second research flight into zero gravity
21.10.2016 | Universität Zürich
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences