In a mouse study, the team located key molecules that switch on stress pathways in preterm lung disorders, and also found that when parts of these pathways were blocked with a pain drug, lung damage was prevented or reversed.
The findings are published online ahead of print in the March issue of American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in premature infants and does not have any specific treatment. The disorder affects about 97% of infants with birth weights below 1,250 grams, and can lead to repeated respiratory tract infections, as well as to emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adulthood.
A research team led by Vineet Bhandari, M.D., associate professor of pediatric neonatology and obstetrics, gynecology & reproductive sciences at Yale School of Medicine, theorized that if the molecules that cause these disorders can be blocked early on, they could essentially prevent lifelong lung problems.
Bhandari and his team studied the lung tissue of newborn mice. The team noted that when this lung tissue was exposed to hyperoxia —excess oxygen in tissues and organs that activates all components of the stress pathways in the newborn lung— there was a marked increase of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) in the lung's stress pathways. This action resulted in BPD in mice. Once the team used a drug that inhibits Cox2, they were able to reverse BPD in mice.
"This is the first time hyperoxia has been comprehensively shown to be responsible for activating the stress pathway in developing lungs," said Bhandari. "Hyperoxia can induce interferon gamma and disrupt lung development, leading to BPD in mice. Once we used the Cox2 inhibitor Celecoxib, we were able to reverse the effects in the mouse BPD models. The drug, originally indicated to treat pain, protected the lungs from cell death, and was able to prevent destruction of and damage to the developing lung exposed to hyperoxia or excess interferon gamma in room air."
Bandari added that the findings suggest that Cox2 and or CHOP — a molecule important in the stress pathway — are potential new drug targets that can be inhibited to treat or prevent human BPD.
Bhandari said the next step is to conduct pre-clinical studies.
Other authors on the study include Rayman Choo-Wing; Mansoor A. Syed; Anantha Harijith, M.D.; Brianne Bowen; Gloria Pryhuber; M.D.; Cecilia Janér, M.D.; Sture Andersson, M.D.; and Robert J. Homer, M.D.
Citation: Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0381OC (March 2013)
Karen N. Peart | EurekAlert!
The birth of a new protein
20.10.2017 | University of Arizona
Building New Moss Factories
20.10.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
20.10.2017 | Information Technology
20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research