Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers identify and block protein that interferes with appetite-suppressing hormone

18.04.2013
Ever since the appetite-regulation hormone called leptin was discovered in 1994, scientists have sought to understand the mechanisms that control its action.

It was known that leptin was made by fat cells, reduced appetite and interacted with insulin , but the precise molecular details of its function —details that might enable the creation of a new treatment for obesity — remained elusive.

Now, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston researchers have revealed a significant part of one of those mechanisms, identifying a protein that can interfere with the brain's response to leptin. They've also created a compound that blocks the protein's action — a potential forerunner to an anti-obesity drug.

In experiments with mice fed a high-fat diet, scientists from UTMB and the University of California, San Diego explored the role of the protein, known as Epac1, in blocking leptin's activity in the brain. They found that mice genetically engineered to be unable to produce Epac1 had lower body weights, lower body fat percentages, lower blood-plasma leptin levels and better glucose tolerance than normal mice.

When the researchers used a specially developed "Epac inhibitor" to treat brain-slice cultures taken from normal laboratory mice, they found elevated levels of proteins associated with greater leptin sensitivity. Similar results were seen in the genetically engineered mice that lacked the Epac1 gene. In addition, normal mice treated with the inhibitor had significantly lower levels of leptin in their blood plasma — an indication that Epac1 also affected their leptin levels.

"We found that we can increase leptin sensitivity by creating mice that lack the genes for Epac1 or through a pharmacological intervention with our Epac inhibitor," said UTMB professor Xiaodong Cheng, lead author of a paper on the study that recently appeared on the cover of Molecular and Cellular Biology, available on the journal's Web site at http://mcb.asm.org/content/33/5.toc. "The knockout mice gave us a way to tease out the function of the protein, and the inhibitor served as a pharmacological probe that allowed us to manipulate these molecules in the cells."

Cheng and his colleagues suspected a connection between Epac1 and leptin because Epac1 is activated by cyclic AMP, a signaling molecule linked to metabolism and leptin production and secretion. Cyclic AMP is tied to a multitude of other cell signaling processes, many of which are targeted by current drugs. Cheng believes that understanding how it acts through Epac1 (and another form of the protein called Epac2) will also generate new pharmaceutical possibilities — possibly including a drug therapy that will help fight obesity and diabetes.

"We refer to these Epac inhibitors as pharmacological probes, and while they are still far away from drugs, pharmaceutical intervention is always our eventual goal," Cheng said. "We were the first to develop Epac inhibitors, and now we're working very actively with Dr. Jia Zhou, a UTMB medicinal chemist, to modify them and improve their properties. In addition, we are collaborating with colleagues at the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences in searching for more potent and selective pharmacological probes for Epac proteins."

Other authors of the Molecular and Cellular Biology paper include research associates Jingbo Yan, Jingna Wei and Sonja Stutz, research scientists Fang C. Mei and Igor Patrikeev, graduate assistant Yaohua Hu, visiting physician Dapeng Hao, professors Massoud Motamedi and Kathryn A. Cunningham, associate professor Kelly T. Dineley and assistant professor Jonathan D. Hommel, all from UTMB. Authors from the University of California, San Diego include postdoctoral fellows Hongqiang Cheng and Dieu Hung Lao, and professor Ju Chen. This research was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

Jim Kelly | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.utmb.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Not of Divided Mind
19.01.2017 | Hertie-Institut für klinische Hirnforschung (HIH)

nachricht CRISPR meets single-cell sequencing in new screening method
19.01.2017 | CeMM Forschungszentrum für Molekulare Medizin der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Study Will Help Find the Best Locations for Thermal Power Stations in Iceland

19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Not of Divided Mind

19.01.2017 | Life Sciences

Molecule flash mob

19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>