Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers identify Achilles heel of dengue virus, target for future vaccines

12.04.2012
A team of scientists from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Vanderbilt University have pinpointed the region on dengue virus that is neutralized in people who overcome infection with the deadly pathogen.

The results challenge the current state of dengue vaccine research, which is based on studies in mice and targets a different region of the virus.

"In the past researchers have relied on mouse studies to understand how the immune system kills dengue virus and assumed that the mouse studies would apply to people as well," said senior study author Aravinda M. de Silva, PhD, associate professor of microbiology and immunology at the UNC School of Medicine.

"Our study for the first time shows what region the immune system of humans target when they are fighting off the virus. The region on the virus targeted by the human immune system is quite different from the region targeted by mice."

The new research, which will appear online during the week of April 11-14, 2012 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was performed using blood cells from local travelers infected with dengue virus.

The global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades, putting about half of the world's population at risk. Creation of a vaccine is complicated by the fact that there are four distinct, but closely related forms of the virus that cause dengue. Once people have recovered from infection with one form of the virus, they have lifelong immunity against that form.

But if they become infected with one of the other three forms of the virus, they increase their chances of developing the severe bleeding and sometimes fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The leading theory to explain why some people develop dengue hemorrhagic fever is that under some conditions the human immune response can actually enhance the virus and disease during a second infection.

"This is a huge issue for vaccine development," said lead study author Ruklanthi de Alwis, a graduate student in de Silva's lab. "We have to figure out a way to develop dengue vaccines that induce the good response that protects against infection, at the same time avoiding the bad response that enhances disease."

de Alwis looked at a particular subset of the immune response – specialized molecules called antibodies. UNC investigators identified 7 local individuals who had contracted dengue during travel to an endemic region and sent blood cells from these individuals to Vanderbilt School of Medicine. Drs. Scott Smith and James Crowe at Vanderbilt were able to isolate dengue antibodies from these cells for further study at UNC. The team found that instead of binding to small fragments of the virus -- like mouse antibodies do -- human antibodies that neutralized the virus bound to a complex structure that was only present on a completely assembled dengue virus.

"Though this is the first time this phenomenon has been shown with dengue, just last year there were a number of studies showing that antibodies recognize similar complex epitopes in both HIV and West Nile Virus," said de Alwis. "New vaccines as well as those already in the pipeline will need to be assessed to see if they bind just a small fragment or the whole virus, which may determine whether or not they work in humans."

The research was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Southeastern Regional Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infections and a Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative Targeted Research Grant.

Study co-authors from UNC were Nicholas P. Olivarez; William B. Messer; Jeremy P. Huynh; M. P. B. Wahala; and Ralph S. Baric

Les Lang | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.unc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>