Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers Look at Genes That Affect Vaccine Response

09.08.2010
South Dakota State University livestock research is trying to determine whether the genes cattle inherit help determine the way they respond to vaccinations.

The result could be new knowledge about how to make cattle herds healthier.

Assistant professor Michael Gonda in SDSU’s Department of Animal & Range Sciences is leading that study with assistance from graduate student researcher Xin Fang. Gonda is looking at individual genes and also the genome, or the entire system of genes carrying hereditary information.

The work has implications for other species besides cattle and could also add to understanding vaccine response in humans.

“It’s often assumed that animals, and humans as well, respond uniformly to a vaccine,” Gonda said. “In reality there’s a lot of variation in vaccine response. Some animals respond very well and very robustly to the vaccine, other animals don’t respond at all.

“In fact, there is a certain fraction of the population that simply does not respond to the vaccine.

“One of the goals of my laboratory is to determine how much of the non-response to vaccines, or differences in response to vaccination, is actually controlled by genetics, by the animal’s own genes.”

Researchers are vaccinating in total about 1,500 calves over a two- to three-year period. They’re using both animals at the SDSU campus as well as at some outlying SDSU research stations such as the Cottonwood Research Station and the Antelope Research Station in western South Dakota, and the SDSU Cow Camp in Miller. In addition the study uses a beef and a dairy research herd at North Carolina State University, where some of Gonda’s collaborators work.

Scientists are vaccinating all these animals with a commercially available vaccine that protects against both types of Bovine Viral Diarrhea, or BVD. Twenty-five to 30 days later, researchers go back and measure how the animals have responded to the vaccine — whether the response is strong, moderate, low, or if they have not responded at all.

The scientists measure vaccine response by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA, a technique that can detect the presence of antibodies produced by the animal’s immune system in response to the vaccination. Measuring these antibodies gives a good picture of how an animal responds to the vaccine.

“Our objective is once we get these vaccine response measurements, we want to determine — is vaccine response heritable? That means, is there a genetic component to vaccine response? And if there is, can we find any genes or any loci that are associated with vaccine response?” Gonda said. “We do have some preliminary data that suggest the vaccine response is heritable.”

If there is a genetic component to a response to vaccination for BVD, it’s possible that the same genes would be involved, no matter what vaccine is being given. And it’s at least possible that a gene found to help regulate vaccine response in cattle could play an important role in vaccine response in other species of livestock or in humans.

Gonda and his colleagues are looking specifically at polymorphisms, or regions of genes where there are differences from animal to animal. Researchers are focusing in on genes that they know are important from an immunological standpoint such as the major histocompatability complex, a genomic region important to the immune system.

They’re also studying the leptin gene, which is thought to have a role in regulating the immune system. A polymorphism within the leptin gene has already been shown to affect vaccine response to a rabies vaccine in cattle by researchers at the University of Saskatchewan.

Eventually, Gonda said, his research could look at the entire genome.

“One of the biggest applications of genomics is going to be to identify molecular markers within genomes that can be used to select for traits in livestock,” Gonda said. “One of the long-term goals of the studies that I’m doing is to identify molecular markers or genes that are associated with vaccine response so that perhaps one day livestock producers can go out, and they can select animals that have favorable marker alleles for vaccine response and make their cattle healthier.”

The South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station is funding the research.

Jeanne Jones Manzer | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.sdstate.edu

Further reports about: BvD SDSU Vaccine affect genes genetic component immune system

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The dense vessel network regulates formation of thrombocytes in the bone marrow
25.07.2017 | Rudolf-Virchow-Zentrum für Experimentelle Biomedizin der Universität Würzburg

nachricht Fungi that evolved to eat wood offer new biomass conversion tool
25.07.2017 | University of Massachusetts at Amherst

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA mission surfs through waves in space to understand space weather

25.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Strength of tectonic plates may explain shape of the Tibetan Plateau, study finds

25.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

The dense vessel network regulates formation of thrombocytes in the bone marrow

25.07.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>