Researchers from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a panel of small molecules, or metabolites, that appear to indicate aggressive prostate cancer.
The finding could lead to a simple test that would help doctors determine which prostate cancers are slow-growing and which require immediate, aggressive treatment.
Results of the study appear in the Feb. 12 issue of Nature.
"One of the biggest challenges we face in prostate cancer is determining if the cancer is aggressive. We end up overtreating our patients because physicians don't know which tumors will be slow-growing. With this research, we have identified a potential marker for the aggressive tumors," says senior study author Arul Chinnaiyan, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology and S.P. Hicks Endowed Professor of Pathology at the U-M Medical School.
The researchers looked at 1,126 metabolites across 262 samples of tissue, blood or urine associated with benign prostate tissue, early stage prostate cancer and advanced, or metastatic, prostate cancer. They mapped the alterations in metabolites and identified about 10 that were present more often in prostate cancer than in the benign cells and were present most often in the advanced cancer samples.
"When we're looking at metabolites, we're looking several steps beyond genes and proteins. It allows us to look very deeply at some of the functions of the cells and the biochemistry that occurs during cancer development," says Chinnaiyan, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.
One metabolite in particular, sarcosine, appeared to be one of the strongest indicators of advanced disease. Levels of sarcosine, an amino acid, were elevated in 79 percent of the metastatic prostate cancer samples and in 42 percent of the early stage cancer samples. Sarcosine was not found at all in the cancer-free samples.
In the study, sarcosine was a better indicator of advancing disease than the traditional prostate specific antigen, or PSA, test that is currently used to monitor or screen for prostate cancer. Sarcosine was detected in the urine, which has researchers hopeful that a simple urine test could be used.
In addition, the researchers found that sarcosine is involved in the same pathways that are linked to cancer invasiveness. This suggests sarcosine as a potential target for future drug development.
"This research gets at characterizing the chemical complexity of a sample of blood. In the future, this science will drive how doctors make treatment recommendations for their patients," says study author Christopher Beecher, Ph.D., professor of pathology at the U-M Medical School.
Results are preliminary at this point and will need years of further testing and development before this technology would be available for patients.
Prostate cancer statistics: 186,320 Americans will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year and 28,660 will die from the disease, according to the American Cancer Society
Additional authors: From the University of Michigan: Arun Sreekumar, Laila M. Poisson, Thekkelnaycke M. Rajendiran, Amjad P. Khan, Qi Cao, Jindan Yu, Bharathi Laxman, Rohit Mehra, Robert J. Lonigro, Yong Li, Mukesh K. Nyati, Aarif Ahsan, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Bo Han, Xuhong Cao, Jaemun Byun, Gilbert S. Omenn, Subramaniam Pennathur, John T. Wei and Sooryanarayana Varambally. From Metabolon Inc.: Danny C. Alexander, Alvin Berger and Jeffrey R. Shuster. From Penn State University: Debashis Ghosh.
Funding: National Cancer Institute Early Detection Research Network, National Institutes of Health, an MTTC grant, the Burroughs Wellcome Foundation, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation
Disclosure: The University of Michigan has exclusively licensed all pending patents covering this technology to Metabolon, a company with expertise in discovering biomarkers using metabolomics. Beecher, Alexander, Shuster and Chinnaiyan own equity in Metabolon and Chinnaiyan serves on its Scientific Advisory Board. Beecher is a previous employee of Metabolon.
Reference: Nature, Vol. 457, No. 7231, pp. 910-915, Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression
Resources:U-M Cancer AnswerLine, 800-865-1125
Nicole Fawcett | EurekAlert!
Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute
Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy