Researchers at Cleveland Clinic have discovered that a gene – known as an androgen receptor (AR) – is found in both prostate and breast cancers yet has opposite effects on these diseases.
In prostate cancer, the AR gene promotes cancer growth when the gene is "turned on." In breast cancer, the AR gene promotes cancer growth when the gene is "turned off," as is often the case after menopause, when AR production ceases in women.
What this means is that treating prostate and breast cancers require completely opposite approaches to AR. In treating prostate cancer, the strategy should be to block AR; in breast cancer, the strategy should be to support AR production.
Researchers from Cleveland Clinic's Lerner Research Institute, including Charis Eng, M.D., Ph.D., Chair, Genomic Medicine Institute; Robert Silverman, Ph.D., and Warren Heston, Ph.D., both of the Department of Cancer Biology; focused on whether the androgen receptor (AR) molecule offers evidence of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN. The research discovered that AR inhibits PTEN expression in prostate cancer cells, but stimulates it in breast cancer cells.
The conclusions, published in the Oct. 21, 2011 issue of Oncogene, explain why prostate cancer progression is associated with increased AR expression (and a common prostate cancer treatment strategy involves blocking AR), while most breast cancers occur post-menopause, after AR production has ceased (making AR supplementation a strategy for treating breast cancer).
Dr. Eng and her colleagues have mapped the interaction between AR and PTEN in both prostate and breast cancer cells, which suggests that this interaction activates or represses subsequent gene expression depending on organ-specific cofactors. Although PTEN is a known tumor suppressor, and loss of PTEN expression has been associated with numerous cancers (including breast and prostate cancers), its regulation has not been well understood. The current data provide new information regarding PTEN regulation, and suggest that identifying regulatory cofactors will be a valuable next step in determining cancer risk, as well as potential new therapies.
"We now see how androgen affects PTEN expression – and ultimately cancer," said Dr. Eng. "Our observations help explain why this prostate cancer risk can be halved by drinking red wine, which increases PTEN expression. Our data also suggest that treatment of the exact same cancer must be personalized for males and for females."
About Cleveland Clinic
Celebrating its 90th anniversary, Cleveland Clinic is a nonprofit multispecialty academic medical center that integrates clinical and hospital care with research and education. It was founded in 1921 by four renowned physicians with a vision of providing outstanding patient care based upon the principles of cooperation, compassion and innovation. Cleveland Clinic has pioneered many medical breakthroughs, including coronary artery bypass surgery and the first face transplant in the United States. U.S. News & World Report consistently names Cleveland Clinic as one of the nation's best hospitals in its annual "America's Best Hospitals" survey. About 2,800 full-time salaried physicians and researchers and 11,000 nurses represent 120 medical specialties and subspecialties. Cleveland Clinic Health System includes a main campus near downtown Cleveland, eight community hospitals and 16 Family Health Centers in Northeast Ohio, Cleveland Clinic Florida, the Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health in Las Vegas, Cleveland Clinic Canada, and opening in 2013, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi. In 2010, there were 4 million visits throughout the Cleveland Clinic health system and 155,000 hospital admissions. Patients came for treatment from every state and from more than 100 countries. Visit us at http://www.clevelandclinic.org/. Follow us at http://www.twitter.com/ClevelandClinic.
Dan Doron | EurekAlert!
Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
22.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Chemists at FAU successfully demonstrate imine hydrogenation with inexpensive main group metal
22.05.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.
The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...
Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...
A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.05.2018 | Information Technology
18.05.2018 | Information Technology