Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tiny chemical change in horse herpes virus can have lethal effect

12.11.2007
Sometimes, a small change can make a big difference. Such is the case with the horse herpes virus: A change in just one amino acid can make all the difference between triggering a cold or a life-threatening neurological disorder.

Cornell microbiologists have shown that a single amino acid variation in an enzyme that is part of the DNA copying process of equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) creates a different type of EHV-1, which causes the neurological disorders in horses. Both types of EHV-1 can also cause abortions.

The researchers' paper is published in the Nov. 9 issue of PLoS Pathogens, published by the Public Library of Science.

The horse herpes virus, a close relative of the chickenpox virus in humans, lives in horses' nostrils and is commonly spread by droplets in the air. And horses remain infected for life. Recently, veterinarians noticed a rise in outbreaks of the neurological form of EHV-1, which can devastate entire herds. Close to one-third of horses that develop the neurological disease end up dying or being euthanized.

... more about:
»EHV-1 »Herpes »Virus »horse »neurological

"There are apparently two distinct pathotypes of EHV-1 out there, and one is more likely than the other to cause the neurological disease. This study provides the ultimate proof," said Klaus Osterrieder, the paper's senior author who is professor of virology in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine. Laura Goodman, who was a graduate student in the Osterrieder laboratory and is now a postdoctoral associate at Cornell's Baker Institute for Animal Health, is the paper's lead author.

After cloning the genome of the virus obtained from a mare that had both lost a fetus and developed neurological symptoms, the researchers then altered one amino acid in the viral enzyme known as DNA polymerase and rendered the virus unable to cause neurological disease. The amino acid change reduced levels of the virus in the horse's bloodstream, and lower levels of the virus reached the central nervous system. The mutation also made the virus more susceptible to antiviral drugs. The researchers believe the reduced replication and levels of virus in the blood may be why one form of the virus does not cause neurological disorders.

"The two pathotypes replicate to similar levels in the horse's nose and spread to other horses with similar efficiency, so interventions should be equally rigorous for all infections," said Osterrieder.

The fact that EHV-1 is a virus and, thus, does not respond to antibiotics underscores the need for prevention, which includes limiting contact and using separate feeders for infected horses. Also, handlers should be careful not to transfer the virus with their clothes, shoes, hands and gear. While vaccines are available that create an immune response against the EHV-1 respiratory disease, no vaccine is currently known to efficiently protect horses against the neurological disease. Only a few vaccines were shown to protect against abortion.

The researchers postulate that herpes viruses evolve toward strains that produce less disease, so they think that the more virulent neurological strain is older than the milder type of EHV-1.

Krishna Ramanujan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cornell.edu

Further reports about: EHV-1 Herpes Virus horse neurological

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht 'Y' a protein unicorn might matter in glaucoma
23.10.2017 | Georgia Institute of Technology

nachricht Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry
23.10.2017 | Rice University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Salmonella as a tumour medication

HZI researchers developed a bacterial strain that can be used in cancer therapy

Salmonellae are dangerous pathogens that enter the body via contaminated food and can cause severe infections. But these bacteria are also known to target...

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

3rd Symposium on Driving Simulation

23.10.2017 | Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry

23.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light

23.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

The end of pneumonia? New vaccine offers hope

23.10.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>