Blood vessel prostheses work best when the biochemical and mechanical properties match reality as much as possible and when they are made of biodegradable material. To this end tissue technologists grow natural vascular wall cells, endothelial cells, in a biodegradable tube made of collagen. According to Professor István Vermes tissue technologists are overly concerned with developing stem cells, necessary to build blood vessels, and not enough with the development of the vascular skeleton or scaffold, serving as a framework for those stem cells. During his address on the acceptance of the office of professor in the Molecular Aspects of Cell and Tissue Technology (on 11 april 2002) Vermes gave his vision on the bio-engineering of blood vessels. Besides professor at the University of Twente (The Netherlands) Vermes is doctor-clinical chemist and educator in the regional hospital Medisch Spectrum Twente in Enschede, and special professor in Laboratory Medicine at the Semmelweis Medical University in Budapest.
According to Vermes the key to successful development of artificial human tissue and organs lies in the structure and composition of the porous framework on which cells grow. "The traditional method starts with the development of a prosthesis made of artificial materials. I am concerned with bio-engineering a blood vessel, with biological materials as starting point. To this end we have to imitate all the natural functions of a vessel, including those of the scaffold with all functional biological materials such as growth factors. The skeleton has many more functions than just attaching and keeping cells together. It contains information in the shape of growth factors, cytokines and surface-properties for the growth and development of cells. The chemistry, the shape and way in which it moves under the influence of stress are of vital importance to influencing the behaviour of cells. The skeleton emits signals that are passed on to the inside of the cell via receptors on the cell surface.“ The future of the stem cell, how it develops or dies because of apoptosis, is dependent on the information coming from the vascular skeleton.
A blood vessel is built up, from the inside out, of six different layers of successively endothelial cells, elastic layers of among them smooth muscle cells with around them connective tissue with lymph vessels and nerves. Vermes: "Endothelial cells are important in translating changes in the blood through the production of materials that in turn take care of the balance between blood and the surrounding tissue. To understand the function of these cells in the blood vessel and for the production of the artificial vessel, we study this process by directing ourselves towards cell division (proliferation) and cell death (apoptosis) of endothelial cells." Vermes` strategy is to grow stem cells that differentiate themselves selectively to smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, and developing a scaffold in the shape of a porous tube of biodegradable and flexible polymers. The stem cells are seeded in the skeleton in the presence of, among others, growth factors.
Bernadette Koopmans | alphagalileo
The first genome of a coral reef fish
29.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
New switch decides between genome repair and death of cells
27.09.2016 | University of Cologne - Universität zu Köln
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
29.09.2016 | Event News
28.09.2016 | Event News
27.09.2016 | Event News
29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
29.09.2016 | Interdisciplinary Research