The researchers of the IRIBHM have prooved, by the use of these genetically-modified mice, that those abnormalities of B lymphocytes development and function are the result of an overexpression of molecule furthering apoptosis. The consequence of this overexpression is thus a decreased survival of the B lymphocytes and defect in antibody production in response to certain agents.
The IRIBHM’s team has also suggested a mechanism by which Inositol 1,3,4,5 tetrakisphosphate, the product generated by Itpkb, plays a significant role in the development and function of B lymphocytes : it controls the subcellular localization of the Rasa 3 enzyme, one of its intracellular receptors. Indeed, production of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in the cell results in the dissociation of the Rasa 3 receptor from the cell membrane and its inactivation.
This work follows other research still under way at the IRIBHM and focused on the unexpected but significant role of the Itpkb enzyme in T lymphocytes development. Considering the localization of the Itpkb gene in a region of the chromosom 1 known in man and mouse to contain several predisposition genes to autoimmune disease and considering this gene’s function in T and B lymphocytes development, the researchers of the IRIBHM investigate the hypothesis according to which alterations in this Itpkb gene could eventuallly favour the appearance of autoimmune disease (Disseminated Lupus Erythmatosus, type 1 diabetes,…).
This research, recently published in PNAS, has been done in collaboration with teams from the ULB (IRIBHM, IBMM), the Université de Genève, Harvard University and Bristol University.
Nancy Dath | alfa
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Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
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