Rice University biomedical engineers have developed a new technique for growing cartilage from human embryonic stem cells, a method that could be used to grow replacement cartilage for the surgical repair of knee, jaw, hip, and other joints.
"Because native cartilage is unable to heal itself, researchers have long looked for ways to grow replacement cartilage in the lab that could be used to surgically repair injuries," said lead researcher Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, the Karl F. Hasselmann Professor of Bioengineering. "This research offers a novel approach for producing cartilage-like cells from embryonic stem cells, and it also presents the first method to use such cells to engineer cartilage tissue with significant functional properties."
The results are available online and slated to appear in the September issue of the journal Stem Cells. The study involved cells from an NIH-sanctioned stem cell line.
Using a series of stimuli, the researchers developed a method of converting the stem cells into cartilage cells. Building upon this work, the researchers then developed a process for using the cartilage cells to make cartilage tissue. The results show that cartilages can be generated that mimic the different types of cartilage found in the human body, such as hyaline articular cartilage -- the type of cartilage found in all joints -- and fibrocartilage -- a type found in the knee meniscus and the jaw joint. Athanasiou said the results are exciting, as they suggest that similar methods may be used to convert the stem cell-derived cartilage cells into robust cartilage sections that can be of clinical usefulness.
Tissue engineers, like those in Athanasiou's research group, are attempting to unlock the secrets of the human body's regenerative system to find new ways of growing replacement tissues like muscle, skin, bone and cartilage. Athanasiou's Musculoskeletal Bioengineering Laboratory at Rice University specializes in growing cartilage tissues.
The idea behind using stem cells for tissue engineering is that these primordial cells have the ability to become more than one type of cell. In all people, there are many types of "adult" stem cells at work. Adult stem cells can replace the blood, bone, skin and other tissues in the body. Stem cells become specific cells based upon a complex series of chemical and biomechanical cues, signals that scientists are just now starting to understand.
Unlike adult stem cells, which can become only a limited number of cell types, embryonic stem cells can theoretically become any type of cell in the human body.
Athanasiou's group has been one of the most successful in the world at studying cartilage cells and, especially, engineering cartilage tissues. He said that for his research the primary advantage that embryonic stem cells have over adult stem cells is their ability to remain malleable.
"Identifying a readily available cell source has been a major obstacle in cartilage engineering," Athanasiou said. "We know how to convert adult stem cells into cartilage-like cells. The more problematic issue comes in trying to maintain a ready stock of adult stem cells to work with. These cells have a strong tendency to convert from stem cells into a more specific type of cell, so the clock is always ticking when we work with them."
By contrast, Athanasiou said his research group has found it easier to grow and maintain a stock of embryonic stem cells. Nonetheless, he is quick to point out that there is no clear choice about which type of stem cell works best for cartilage engineering.
"We don't know the answer to that," Athanasiou said. "It's extremely important that we study all potential cell candidates, and then compare and contrast those studies to find out which works best and under what conditions. Keep in mind that these processes are very complicated, so it may well be that different types of cells work best in different situations."
Athanasiou began studying embryonic stem cells in 2005. Since funding for the program was limited, he asked two new graduate students in his group if they were interested in pursuing the work as a secondary project to their primary research. Those students, Eugene Koay and Gwen Hoben, are co-authors of the newly published study. Both are enrolled in the Baylor College of Medicine Medical Scientist Training Program, a joint program that allows students to concurrently earn their medical degree from Baylor while undertaking Ph.D. studies at Rice.
"Eugene and Gwen are both outstanding students," Athanasiou said. "Each earned their undergraduate degree from Rice and each worked in my laboratory as undergraduate students. They have chosen to do this research because they think this may represent the future of regenerative medicine."
Jade Boyd | EurekAlert!
Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel
The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering