Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Skin as a living coloring book

10.09.2007
Specialized recipient cells determine where pigment is deposited in epidermis and hair

The pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color in mammals, is produced in specialized cells called melanocytes and then distributed to other cells. But not every cell in the complex layers of skin becomes pigmented. The question of how melanin is delivered to appropriate locations may have been answered by a study from researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cutaneous Biology Research Center (CBRC).

“Pigment recipient cells essentially tell melanocytes where to deposit melanin, and the pattern of those recipients determines pigment patterns,” says Janice Brissette, PhD, who led the study. “Recipient cells act like the outlines in a child’s coloring book; as recipient cells develop, they form a ‘picture’ that is initially colorless but is then ‘colored in’ by the melanocytes.” The report appears in the Sept. 7 issue of Cell.

In humans, melanin is deposited in both the skin and the hair; but in some other mammals such as mice, melanin is primarily deposited in the coat, leaving the skin beneath the coat unpigmented. Melanocytes deposit melanin via cellular extensions called dendrites that reach out to other cells in the epidermis (the outer layer of skin) or the hair follicles. But the mechanism determining whether melanin is delivered to a particular cell has been unknown.

... more about:
»Foxn1 »Melanin »Pigment »melanocytes

The MGH-CBRC researchers theorized that a mouse gene known as Foxn1 might play a role. Lack of Foxn1 is responsible for so-called ‘nude mice,’ which have hair that is so brittle it breaks off, resulting in virtually total hairlessnes, and other defects of the skin. A similar phenomenon exists in humans with inactivation of the corresponding gene.

When the researchers developed a strain of transgenic mice in which Foxn1 is misexpressed in cells that do not usually contain melanin, they found those normally colorless areas became pigmented. Examining the skin of the transgenic mice revealed that melanocytes were contacting and delivering melanin to the cells in which Foxn1 was abnormally activated. No pigment was observed in the corresponding tissues of normal mice. Examination of human skin samples showed that the human version of Foxn1 was also expressed in cells known to be pigment recipients. Further experiments revealed that Foxn1 signals melanocytes through a protein called Fgf2, levels of which rise as Foxn1 espression increases.

“Foxn1 makes epithelial cells into pigment recipients, which attract melanocytes and stimulate pigment transfer, engineering their own pigmentation,” says Brissette, an associate professor of Dermatology at Harvard Medical School. She and her colleagues note that the Foxn1/Fgf2 pathway probably has additional functions in the skin and that it is probably not the only pathway responsible for the targeting of pigment.

“We know that Foxn1 and Fgf2 act in concert with other factors and function within a larger network of genes. Our next step will be to identify other genes that can confer the pigment recipient phenotype or control the targeting of pigment,” Brissette adds. Her research may eventually be relevant to disorders such as vitiligo – in which pigment disappears from patches of skin – age spots, the greying of hair and even the deadly melanocyte-based skin cancer melanoma.

Emily Parker | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.massgeneral.org

Further reports about: Foxn1 Melanin Pigment melanocytes

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

nachricht Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>