Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists identify embryonic stem cells by appearance alone

28.08.2007
Some scientific results are hard to spot, especially in genetic research. Often scientists are unable to physically see if the gene they inserted into a cell has produced the desired trait. To overcome this problem researchers use various genetic markers that contain pieces of foreign DNA that cause cells to, for example, glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.

But scientists in the lab of Whitehead Member Rudolf Jaenisch didn’t have to resort to these genetic markers in their latest experiment because the results were easy to see. Building on their widely publicized June Nature paper, which demonstrated that it’s possible to convert specialized mouse skin cells into unspecialized stem cells, Whitehead postdoctoral researchers Alexander Meissner and Marius Wernig have now identified successfully reprogrammed cells by looks alone.

Their findings, which appear online in the journal Nature Biotechnology on Aug. 27, bring human stem cell therapies a step closer to reality. Before reprogramming can be applied to our own species to generate custom embryonic stem cells, scientists must be able to accomplish it without altering the DNA of the cells involved.

“This eliminates one of the major hurdles to reprogramming human cells,” says Jaenisch, who is also an MIT professor of biology. “If we overcome the other obstacles, this approach could one day provide custom human embryonic stem cells for use in therapy.”

Last spring, Wernig and Meissner relied on genetic markers to identify successfully reprogrammed cells. This required them to work with fibroblasts from a genetically modified mouse. The mouse was grown from embryonic stem cells that contained foreign DNA coding for antibiotic resistance. The scientists had strategically inserted these foreign DNA “markers” at particular points along the genome, next to genes expressed only in embryonic stem cells. All of the cells (including fibroblasts) in the resulting mouse contained the markers.

In the original experiment, the researchers took fibroblasts from the tail of this mouse and infected them with a special virus containing four genes (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4) capable of converting the cells to an embryonic state. Genes typically active in embryonic stem cells roared to life, triggering the adjacent foreign DNA to provide antibiotic resistance. Thus only fully reprogrammed cells survived exposure to an antibiotic, which allowed the scientists to isolate them.

“When we conducted the original experiment, we noticed that many of the infected cells had already started to change shape before the markers were activated,” says Wernig.

So they set up a new experiment to test if visual identification alone would work. Indeed, they were able to separate the reprogrammed cells from ordinary fibroblasts under a microscope, based on several physical differences. Fibroblasts are big and flat. Embryonic stem cells are small, round and form tight colonies.

“We’ve shown that there’s no need to use markers to isolate successfully reprogrammed cells,” says Meissner. “This significantly simplifies this approach in mice, as we can now work with ordinary fibroblasts.”

But another hurdle remains before the technique can be applied to human cells.

“We still used viruses containing foreign DNA to introduce the genes that induced the reprogramming,” explains Meissner.

The scientists are now working to eliminate the virus from the reprogramming process. Jaenisch believes they will eventually succeed and points out that the technique could eventually yield a bountiful supply of custom human embryonic stem cells for use in therapy.

Meissner and Wernig successfully reprogrammed about 0.5 percent of the fibroblasts. Given that there are millions of cells in a typical skin biopsy (researchers used skin from either the end of the tail or from the ear of the mouse), that translates into thousands of stem cells, each one capable of developing into any cell type of the body.

Ceal Capistrano | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wi.mit.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>