All organisms consist of a number of different cell types each producing different proteins. The nerve cells produce proteins necessary for the nerve cell function; the muscle cells proteins necessary for the muscle function and so on. All these specialised cells originate from the same cell type – the embryonic stem cells. In a highly controlled process called differentiation, the stem cells are induced to become specialised cells.
Gene family helps regulate stem cell differentiation
The BRIC researchers have now identified a new gene family, which by modifying gene expression is essential for the regulation of the differentiation process. These results have been obtained by using both human and mouse stem cells, as well as by studying the devel-opment of the round worm, C. elegans.
The new findings are in line with a number of recent publications that support the idea that differentiation may not entirely be a “one-way process”, and may have impact on the therapeutic use of stem cells for the treatment of various genetic diseases such as cancer and Alzheimers disease.
The research was carried out by a team led by Professor Kristian Helin at the new established Centre for Epigenetics at BRIC, University of Copenhagen, in cooperation with researchers at the University of Edinburgh, and the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel.
Epigenetics is a relatively new field of research but nonetheless “hot” within biotechnological and biomedical research now. With the open-ing of Centre for Epigenetics University of Copenhagen joins the re-search front internationally, e.g. the EU has initiated a research net work for epigenetics – see http://epigenome.eu
Centre for Epigenetics is financed by the Danish Research Founda-tion for a period of five years as one of the eight newly established “Centres of Excellence”. The centre, which consists of four research groups, is led by Professor Kristian Helin, BRIC, University of Copenhagen.
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Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
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Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
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