Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Research Identifies Anti-viral Protein That May Predict Who Might be at Risk to Develop Lupus

31.07.2007
Certain families produce higher levels of a specific molecule, called interferon-alpha, that primes the body’s immune system to turn on, and in some cases initiate an autoimmune attack on itself, according to new research from Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City.

Our immune system is able to defeat disease-causing viruses and bacteria every day using chemical weapons, like interferon-alpha, that have been honed over time. But like anything else, we can have too much of a good thing.

Using blood samples from two large repositories, rheumatologist Mary K. Crow, M.D., and her colleagues at Hospital for Special Surgery compared 266 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease, with 405 of their healthy relatives. Specifically, Dr. Crow, who is director of Rheumatology Research and associate chief of the Division of Rheumatology at Hospital for Special Surgery, and her team were looking at levels of interferon-alpha. The researchers found that when an SLE patient had high blood levels, so did many of their healthy first degree family members. There was a genetic link.

The study, which is now online in advance of print, will be in the September issue of Genes and Immunity.

“There were a number of first degree relatives of patients with SLE that had high interferon-alpha levels,” says Timothy Niewold, M.D., first author of the study and a former rheumatology fellow at Hospital for Special Surgery. “But otherwise, those family members looked and felt perfectly fine. All of their diagnostics were normal.”

Our immune system works by distinguishing self from non-self, so that it preferentially attacks foreign microbes. Interferon-alpha is normally a helpful molecule in this regard, leading the fight against invading viruses. Genes producing high levels of interferon-alpha have probably been selected over time to help fight infection. But high levels of interferon-alpha in some individuals may also confuse the immune system so that it doesn’t know self from non-self anymore – turning and attacking its own tissue as in SLE.

As far back as the 1970s, doctors had known that a characteristic of patients with SLE, who are mainly women in their childbearing years, was an abnormally high blood level of interferon-alpha. However, they didn’t know if the high interferon levels were the cause of the disease or just an associated side-effect.

“A role for interferon-alpha in lupus has been suggested for a number of years,” says Dr. Crow, who is also director of the Autoimmunity and Inflammation Research Program and co-director of the Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Research at Hospital for Special Surgery. “However, all of the studies to date had focused on how the levels of interferon-alpha were controlled and what the effects of such high levels were. The real question was whether interferon-alpha was playing a primary role in the disease or not.”

The blood samples showed that some family members of patients with high levels of interferon-alpha also had higher levels than unrelated healthy individuals, irrespective of their ethnic background. This observation supported the idea that high interferon-alpha levels play an important primary role in the disease.

Next, the researchers examined the samples for two types of autoantibodies common to SLE patients. SLE patients with low levels of interferon-alpha were more likely to have neither of the characteristic autoantibodies, while patients with the highest levels were more likely to have both. However the healthy family members with high interferon-alpha did not have either autoantibody. This led the scientists to propose a “two-hit” model for the development of lupus. Genetics that cause high levels of interferon-alpha may predispose a person to SLE, but the disease appears only when something else, perhaps an environmental factor, pushes the immune system to the breaking point and causes the production of the damaging autoantibodies.

“The high level of interferon-alpha doesn’t always cause the disease, because many healthy family members have high levels,” says Dr. Niewold, who is now an Instructor in the Section of Rheumatology at the University of Chicago. “We think, however, that those levels somehow prime the immune system, lowering the threshold, so that when the wrong stimulus comes along, the cells of the immune system begin making the autoantibodies and the person develops SLE.”

The researchers are now working to identify the other players that are involved in the progression of SLE. They hope that as they know more, they may be able to identify those at high risk and diagnose the condition early enough to intervene and reverse the disease. Observational and genetic studies of families with high levels of interferon-alpha will also help them to pinpoint the other factors, including the relevant genetic variations that determine why one family member develops the disease while another doesn’t.

“The hope is that we may be able to use interferon-alpha levels as a measurement to predict who might be at risk to develop this disease,” says Dr. Crow, who is the immediate past president of the American College of Rheumatology. “We can’t do that yet, but the success of this study is very encouraging.”

Jing Hua and Thomas J.A. Lehman at the Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Research at Hospital for Special Surgery and John B. Harley at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation in Oklahoma City also contributed to this paper. This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Alliance for Lupus Research, the Lupus Research Institute and the Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Research at HSS.

About Hospital for Special Surgery

Founded in 1863, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) is a world leader in orthopedics, rheumatology and rehabilitation. HSS is nationally ranked No. 1 in orthopedics, No. 3 in rheumatology by U.S. News & World Report, and has received Magnet Recognition for Excellence in Nursing Service from the American Nurses Credentialing Center. In the 2006 edition of HealthGrades' Hospital Quality in America Study, HSS received five-star ratings for clinical excellence in its specialties. A member of the NewYork-Presbyterian Healthcare System and an affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University, HSS provides orthopedic and rheumatologic patient care at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital at New York Weill Cornell Medical Center. All Hospital for Special Surgery medical staff are on the faculty of Weill Medical College of Cornell University. The hospital's research division is internationally recognized as a leader in the investigation of musculoskeletal and autoimmune diseases. Hospital for Special Surgery is located in New York City and online at www.hss.edu.

Tracy Hickenbottom | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hss.edu

Further reports about: HSS Interferon-alpha Lupus Rheumatology SLE autoantibodies orthopedic

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>