Because living organisms contain millions of different molecules, identifying or separating any single one of these from their natural environment in order to carry out research work or perform diagnoses is quite like looking for a needle in a haystack. A number of molecular separation technologies are of course available, and are used by laboratories on a daily basis, but they are often unwieldy and costly. Scientists the world over are therefore attempting to develop a new generation of analytic devices, known as labs-on-a-chip, where all the technological phases of laboratory work are integrated into speedy automated procedures, in what can be deemed to be a single sample to diagnosis step.
CNRS scientists (1) working at the Institut Curie, together with an ESPCI team, have broken new ground in this field, coming closer to such systems with a technology they have called Ephesia (2) . Combining knowledge and tools developed in physics, chemistry, and biology, they have developed an original approach based on the use of self-organizing nanospheres, which handle the key molecule sorting phase within these chips. This new technology paves the way to a whole field of applications both in genetics and in biochemistry, ranging from the study of molecules to medical diagnostics, in particular in oncology with a view to detecting mutations or micrometastases. These new results are to be published by Science magazine on March 22.
A wide range of labs-on-a-chip using very different concepts and materials are currently being developed the world over. The basic idea which they all share is that the various component phases involved in the analysis of given samples are conducted within microchannels (ranging from one tenth to one hundredth of a millimeter) etched onto a microchip. The samples and the substances used to process them, with a view to extracting specific molecules, are injected into these channels and moved about using micropumps, ultra-small pneumatic systems, and electric fields. The device developed by the Institut Curie team is based on a silicone rubber wafer with a 4 cm diameter, within which fine channels have been moulded. This medium was initially developed by G.M. Whitesides at Harvard University in the United States and is well suited for mass production because of its low cost. One of the major issues in developing a lab-on-a-chip involves building molecule-sorting sieves that will operate within these microchannels. This is the problem to which the Institut Curie and ESPCI teams have provided an original solution, interfacing physics, chemistry, and biology.
Catherine Goupillon | alphagalileo
Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Migrating Cells: Folds in the cell membrane supply material for necessary blebs
23.11.2017 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
23.11.2017 | Information Technology
23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.11.2017 | Life Sciences