The cerebral metastases occur approximately with 25 to 30 percent of oncological patients. At that, they appear independent of the primary tumor location. Metastatic disease is accompanied by the basic tumor growth, and in this case the patient is ususally doomed. Half of the patients with cerebral metastases die of them, in spite of conducted treatment. Therefore, metastases in the cerebrum should be discovered as early as possible and their development should be suppressed. Nitric oxide is convenient to be used as a diagnostic marker.
Nitric oxide and its derivatives play a significant role in cancer occurrence and development. Nitric oxide influences the vessel growth in the tumor, the grow of tumors per se, metastatic disease and the apoptosis process (programmed cell death). Its level depends on treatment efficiency.
Experiments involved 24 patients of the neuro-oncology division of the Rostov Oncology Research Institute. Among them, there were patients with malignant growths of the mammary gland, lung, kidney, thyroid gland and with melanoma. The reference group was made of 15 persons without oncological diseases. The contents of nitric oxide derivatives – peroxinitrite, nitrosohaemoglobin, nitrosoglutathione, nitrotyrosine – in blood plasma was determined for all the patients. The analysis was performed via the spectrophotometric method.
It has turned out that the patients with multiple metastases in the brain had much higher contents of nitric oxide derivatives in blood plasma than the patients with solitary metastases and healthy people did. As for the patients with solitary metastases, they were classified into two sub-groups. Five patients had the peroxinitrite and nitrosohaemoglobin level much higher than the average values in this group, respective indices of other patients not differing from the reference level. Over time, metastases in the brain started to develop rapidly with two persons from the subgroup with high contents of nitric oxide derivatives, with one patient – metastases appeared in lymph nodes, and the primary tumor increase in size with two other patients.
As the nitoderivative leve increases before clinicians can record the primary tumor or cerebral metastases growth, the Rostov oncologists suggest that this index should be used for the disease prognosis.
Nadezda Markina | alfa
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22.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
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For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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