Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Invertebrate immune systems are anything but simple, conference finds

21.06.2007
A hundred years since Russian microbiologist Elie Metschnikow first discovered the invertebrate immune system, scientists are only just beginning to understand its complexity. Presenting their findings at a recent European Science Foundation (ESF) conference, scientists showed that invertebrates have evolved elaborate ways to fight disease.

By studying starfish, Metschnikow was the first to see cells digesting bacteria, a process he called phagocytosis (the eating of cells by other cells). Phagocytosis, it turns out, is an important immune defence in all living things. Since Metschnikow's work, scientists have studied the immune systems of simpler organisms (such as invertebrates) in the hope of understanding the immune systems of more complex organisms, like us.

However, invertebrates' immune systems are more elaborate than we expected. "We have underestimated the complexity of invertebrate immunity," says Dr. Paul Schmid-Hempel, an evolutionary ecologist at the ETH Zurich in Switzerland. By studying the immune systems of fruit flies, mosquitoes and other invertebrates (including bed bugs, moths, crustaceans, worms, sponges and bees), scientists are finding new molecules involved in defences against pathogens (microbes that cause disease).

One molecule found in fruit flies, Dscam, is capable of folding itself in 18,000 different ways. Computer models that predict the structure of this molecule have led scientists to suggest that this folding creates different shapes, each capable of binding to different structures on the pathogen's surface. "These molecules can be used very flexibly by assembling their components in many ways," says Schmid-Hempel. Until now, this ability to recognize specific pathogens was thought to be limited to vertebrates.

In another exciting area of research, scientists showed the sophisticated ways that invertebrates manage their immune systems. "Insects recognise peptidoglycan [a component of bacterial cell wall] and this triggers a rapid immune response" explains Schmid-Hempel. However, once the bacteria have been killed, molecules digest peptidoglycans and therefore dampen down the immune response. Regulating the immune response in this way is important because immune systems, if left unchecked, can harm an individual by mistakenly attacking cells in the body.

In humans, the failure of the body to recognise itself results in autoimmune diseases. For example, Crohn's disease is the failure of the body to recognize intestinal cells, resulting in an immune response against these cells. Understanding these autoimmune processes in invertebrates might help us to better engineer drugs to tackle these debilitating diseases in humans.

Insects can also boost their immune systems ready for a pathogen invasion. Female bedbugs, which are often wounded during mating, enhance their immune system prior to mating in anticipation of pathogen invasion. Similarly, bumblebees maintain their immune systems in an enhanced state following a pathogen attack to counter future infections. "This can even cross generations, with mothers transferring immunity to their offspring" says Schmid-Hempel. This delicate management of immune responses has until now been regarded as a characteristic of vertebrates.

Schmid-Hempel thinks that the molecular mechanisms found in invertebrate immune systems may rival those seen in the vertebrate world. He says: "Insects use different cells and molecules, but follow very similar principles for detecting pathogens as vertebrates."

And scientists are only beginning to understand the elaborate ways that invertebrates respond to pathogens. As they discover new molecules, the invertebrate immune system could turn out to be much more like that of vertebrates - making it an even better model for the study of our own immune system.

The impact on innate immunity: at the defence frontier - the biology of innate immunity conference was organised by the ESF Research Conferences Scheme and was attended by 90 immunologists and evolutionary ecologists. It was held at the University of Innsbruck Conference Centre in Obergurgl, Ötz Valley, Austria on 19-24 May 2007. The conference appealed to an international audience, drawing scientists from mainland Europe (Kenneth Söderhäll, Uppsala University, Sweden), Britain (Andrew Read, University of Edinburgh, Scotland), and the Canada (Shelley Adamo, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, CA). This conference was organised by ESF in partnership with the Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung in Österreich (FWF) and the Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck (LFUI).

The European Science Foundation, which is based in Strasbourg, France, is an association of 75 member organisations from 30 European countries. Since its inception in 1974, it has co-ordinated a wide range of pan-European scientific initiatives.

Thomas Lau | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esf.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Individual Receptors Caught at Work
19.10.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Rapid environmental change makes species more vulnerable to extinction
19.10.2017 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>