Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cytokine resistance contributes to pathology of type 2 diabetes

15.06.2007
In a study appearing this month in the Journal of Immunology, researchers at the University of Illinois describe how an impaired anti-inflammatory response plays a role in the pathology of type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is classified as a metabolic disorder, but a growing number of researchers are beginning to think of it also as a disease of the innate immune system. Inflammation, a key component of the early immune response, is chronically elevated in people with type 2 diabetes. While the pro-inflammatory pathways of type 2 diabetes have received much attention, the anti-inflammatory side of the equation is less well known.

The new study focused on a number of cytokines, protein signals that bind to specific receptors on cells and set off a cascade of biochemical reactions within the cell. Interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factors and some growth factors are among the cytokines that direct many aspects of the immune response. Cytokines are secreted by many types of cells, including the immune cells known as macrophages.

In earlier studies, the researchers had shown that macrophages in diabetic and obese (diabese) mice secrete more pro-inflammatory and less anti-inflammatory cytokines than those of nondiabese mice. The team, led by pathology professor and department head Gregory Freund, also had demonstrated that human monocytes cultured under type 2 diabetic conditions had impaired interleukin-4 signaling. Interleukin

4 (IL-4) is an important player in the immune response in that it steers macrophages toward the production of other anti-inflammatory cytokines. It also inhibits secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines.

When IL-4 binds to its receptor on a target cell, it sets off one of two cascades of intracellular events.

The first of these signal transduction pathways, the Jak-STAT pathway, is well studied and well understood. The second, called the insulin receptor substrate 2 / phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (IRS-2/PI3K) pathway, was more of a mystery, and of greater interest to Freund and his colleagues.

What drew them to this pathway was its potential role in the anti-inflammatory response, and its similarity to the cascade initiated when cells respond to insulin.

"One of the actions of diabetes is to create intracellular insulin resistance," Freund said. "Some of the cytokines that work on cells share the same pathways as the insulin receptor." Since diabetes causes insulin resistance, Freund said, "shouldn't there be a resistance to cytokines, too? And that is what we found."

The research team showed, for the first time, that the IRS-2 signaling arm of the interleukin-4 pathway directed the up-regulation of a key anti-inflammatory molecule in primary macrophages, and that this pathway was disrupted in type 2 diabetic conditions. They also showed that the loss of IL-4 function in diabese mice caused chronic over-expression of an important suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein. This SOCS-3 protein aborts the cascade of events that normally leads to insulin uptake and/or cytokine signaling in a balanced inflammatory response.

This study supports earlier findings that inflammation is a key part of the pathology of diabetes, Freund said. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in type 2 diabetes, but the anti-inflammatory mechanisms are also impaired, leading to a multitude of major and minor health issues in the diabese.

"They get a cold. They get injured. Something happens. And it's worse in those people with obesity or diabetes and lasts longer than it does in others," Freund said. "Why? The imbalance may be the elevation in pro-inflammation. But it probably also includes a loss of anti-inflammatory function."

This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, and the U. of I. Agricultural Experiment Station.

Diana Yates | University of Illinois
Further information:
http://www.uiuc.edu

Further reports about: CASCADE Cytokine Diabetes anti-inflammatory macrophages receptor

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Immune Defense Without Collateral Damage
23.01.2017 | Universität Basel

nachricht The interactome of infected neural cells reveals new therapeutic targets for Zika
23.01.2017 | D'Or Institute for Research and Education

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.

According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tracking movement of immune cells identifies key first steps in inflammatory arthritis

23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine

Electrocatalysis can advance green transition

23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New technology for mass-production of complex molded composite components

23.01.2017 | Process Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>