These results, published in Clinical Chemistry, are the first to show that the APOA2 gene is linked to food preferences that shape dietary patterns, particularly preferences for dietary fat.
Ordovas, corresponding author, and colleagues analyzed genetic alleles, or variants, in the APOA2 promoter, a region that controls expression, or behavior, of the APOA2 gene. The alleles of the APOA2 promoter, T and C, form combinations; TT, TC, and CC, which indicate genotype. Of more than 1,000 study participants, approximately 85 percent had the common TT and TC genotypes, whereas 15 percent of participants had the CC genotype. “Both men and women with the CC genotype had a statistically significant higher intake of fat than people with the TT and TC genotypes,” says Ordovas. “People with the CC genotype also consumed an average of 200 more calories per day and were nearly two times more likely to be obese, as compared to those with the two more common alleles.”
In addition to preference for dietary fat, the researchers found evidence that the APOA2 gene influences preferences for protein and carbohydrate. People with the CC genotype consumed higher absolute amounts of protein and lower absolute amounts of carbohydrate than those with the TT and TC genotypes. “People with the CC genotype also exhibited dietary patterns with a lower amount of carbohydrate relative to fat and protein than people with the TT and TC genotypes,” says Ordovas, “despite their caloric intake or BMI.”
Study participants, who were part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, were asked to fill out dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Researchers measured participants’ weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, along with blood lipid levels both before and after a high-fat meal.
The researchers did not find an association between any alleles of APOA2 and blood lipid levels, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, or LDL or HDL cholesterol. People with the CC genotype, however, did have greater amounts of small HDL cholesterol particles, as compared to larger HDL cholesterol particles, in their blood after eating the high-fat meal than did people with at least one T allele. Small HDL cholesterol particles are more of a risk factor for cardiovascular disease than are larger HDL particles.
“This study adds to our understanding of the relationship among nutrition, genetics, and obesity,” says Ordovas, who is also a professor at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts. “Nutrients from the foods we eat activate proteins in our body, which in turn bind to promoter regions, like the APOA2 promoter. These promoters then tell our genes how to behave,” he explains. “Understanding these relationships may help to shape future recommendations for prevention of undesirable health outcomes, especially in populations that may be genetically vulnerable to certain dietary patterns or specific nutrients. More studies are needed in diverse populations to determine if APOA2 might play a role not only in food preferences, but also in satiety signaling.”
Siobhan Gallagher | EurekAlert!
Immune Defense Without Collateral Damage
23.01.2017 | Universität Basel
The interactome of infected neural cells reveals new therapeutic targets for Zika
23.01.2017 | D'Or Institute for Research and Education
For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.
According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine
23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.01.2017 | Process Engineering