It has been known for some time that the two conditions were linked, but now the Leeds team has shown how an incident of reduced oxygen to the brain – caused by the stroke – can leave the patient vulnerable to the gradual build-up of toxic chemicals which can cause Alzheimer’s.
The research was led by Professor Chris Peers of the University’s school of medicine, who explained: “Our research is looking into what happens when oxygen levels in the brain are reduced by a number of factors, from long-term conditions like emphysema and angina, to sudden incidents such as a heart attack, stroke or even head trauma. Even though the patient may outwardly recover, the hidden cell damage may be irreversible.
“It could even be an issue for people who snore heavily, whose sleep patterns are such that there will be times in the night when their brain is hypoxic – deprived of sufficient oxygen. It can be anything that stops the heart and lungs working together to their optimal capabilities.”
The research centred on the damage done by these low-oxygen incidents to a group of brain cells called astrocytes. When the brain is functioning normally, it makes connections through the release of tiny amounts of chemical across the synapses. Once the chemical has been transmitted, it is “mopped up” by the astrocytes.
The Leeds team – which also includes Dr John Boyle in the Faculty of Medicine and Health and Dr Hugh Pearson of the Faculty of Biological Sciences – has shown that if at some point the astrocytes have become hypoxic, they are less able to mop up these transmitters, allowing the residual chemicals to accumulate and become toxic.
“This is an important factor in what’s going on in hypoxic brains,” said Prof Peers, whose work received funding from the Alzheimer’s Society and the Alzheimer’s Research Trust. “Astrocytes are just as essential as neurones for normal brain function – and we have ten times as many of them.”
Professor Susanne Sorensen, head of research at the Alzheimer's Society, added: "The team examined the role of cells that support neurones in the brain. This is exciting because rather than focussing on neurones they looked at processes in the brain, which until now have not be researched in so much detail."
In another project, the team is investigating two key signalling molecules which are very sensitive to fluctuations in oxygen levels. The scientists suspect that in low oxygen conditions these molecules could begin the increased production of a toxic protein called amyloid which builds up in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.
The work at Leeds is part of a network of research projects nationally and internationally, which are adding to the sum of knowledge about a disease which costs the UK more than cancer, heart disease and stroke combined.
There are around 700,000 people in the UK currently suffering with dementia – a figure that is set to more than double by 2050, simply because we are living longer. And the disparity between funding levels for research into different conditions is stark, as Prof Peers explained: “For every cancer patient in this country, between £300 and £400 is spent every year on research. For Alzheimer’s sufferers it is closer to £15, yet sufferers can need full-time care for the last 20 to 30 years of their lives, so any research into intervention can be really cost-effective in the long term.”
Around 700,000 people in the UK – including 20 per cent of those aged over 80 – have a form of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for more than half of these. Alzheimer’s is not a normal, unavoidable part of getting older, but a fatal and incurable brain disease. It can take 30 years to develop. Beyond the age of 65, your chance of developing Alzheimer’s doubles every five years.
The Alzheimer's Research Trust is a UK dementia research charity dedicated to finding ways to treat, cure or prevent Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Lewy Body disease and fronto-temporal dementias. With no government funding it relies on public donations to fund its vital research. The Trust provides free information to the public on dementia and the treatments currently available. Call 01223 843899 or visit www.alzheimers-research.org.uk
The Alzheimer's Society works across the UK to champion the rights of people living with dementia and those who care for them. As a charity, the society depends on the generosity of the public to help it care, research and campaign for people with dementia. You can donate now by calling 0845 306 0898 or visiting www.alzheimers.org.uk. The Alzheimer's Society Dementia Helpline number is 0845 300 0336 or visit www.alzheimers.org.uk
Simon Jenkins | alfa
Glycosylation: Mapping Uncharted Territory
21.09.2017 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH
Molecular Force Sensors
20.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...
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