Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Inflammatory system genes linked to cognitive decline after heart surgery

02.05.2007
Variants of two genes involved in the inflammatory system appear to protect patients from suffering a decline in mental function following heart surgery.

Duke University Medical Center researchers believe their findings could help physicians identify patients at risk of suffering mental decline after heart surgery and raises the possibility that these patients could be treated with drugs that are known to dampen the inflammatory response.

Six years ago, the Duke researchers demonstrated that 42 percent of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery had measurable cognitive decline five years after their procedure. Since that finding, the team has been investigating possible reasons for this decline.

The researchers selected known variations in 37 genes that previous studies had implicated in various impairments of cognitive and mental function. When they looked at more than 500 heart surgery patients and correlated cognitive decline with the patient’s genetic makeup, they discovered that patients with two specific variants were less likely to have problems with areas of cognitive function such as memory, attention and concentration.

“While bypass surgery has saved millions of Americans with coronary artery disease, many patients and families find that cognitive decline after surgery has reduced their quality of life,” said Duke cardiothoracic anesthesiologist Joseph Mathew, M.D., lead investigator of the study reported online Tuesday, May 1, in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the American Heart Association.

“The two gene variants we found were involved in some manner with the inflammatory system, raising the possibility that therapies given during surgery aimed at the controlling the inflammatory response would be protective,” Mathew said. “Also, our results provide additional evidence for a genetic basis for the cognitive deterioration seen after heart surgery.”

The researchers found that patients with variants in genes for C-reactive protein and P-selectin were less likely to suffer cognitive decline than were patients without the variants. C-reactive protein plays an important role in the body’s initial response to injury, and studies have shown that high levels of the protein put patients at higher risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. P-selectin is a molecule that helps recruit circulating white blood cells to the site of an injury.

For their analysis, the researchers gave 513 heart patients at Duke University Hospital a battery of cognitive exams before heart surgery and then six weeks later. They found that patients with the variation of the C-reactive protein gene were 20.6 percent less likely to suffer mental decline, and patients with the P-selectin variant had a 15.2 percent risk reduction. The incidence of deficit in patients with both gene variants was 17 percent compared to 43 percent in patients who had neither variant.

Furthermore, patients with the two gene variants had significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein in their bloodstream and lower P-selectin expression, and the researchers said this factor may provide a biological basis for the protective effect they observed.

“Although we have made significant progress in minimizing the adverse events related to cardiac surgery, little progress has been made in reducing postoperative cognitive decline,” said Mark Newman, M.D., chairman of anesthesiology and senior member of the research team. “While we know that there are many factors involved in this phenomenon, the results of this study provide insight into the genetic factors that influence cognition and may translate into more precise identification of at-risk patients.”

Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is performed more than 600,000 times a year in the United States for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Typically, surgeons use pieces of blood vessels from other parts of the body to “bypass” clogs in coronary arteries, thereby restoring blood flow to the heart.

Richard Merritt | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mc.duke.edu

Further reports about: C-reactive Coronary P-selectin cognitive decline inflammatory

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ambush in a petri dish
24.11.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New proton record: Researchers measure magnetic moment with greatest possible precision

High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons

The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

IceCube experiment finds Earth can block high-energy particles from nuclear reactions

24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 'half-hearted' solution to one-sided heart failure

24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heidelberg Researchers Study Unique Underwater Stalactites

24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>