Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists find major susceptibility genes for Crohn's disease

17.04.2007
Discoveries reveal new genetic risk factors for the millions of people with inflammatory bowel diseases

A consortium of Canadian and American researchers led by Dr. John D. Rioux, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine at the Montreal Heart Institute and the Université de Montréal, report in the April 15 online edition of Nature Genetics the results from a search of the entire human genome for genetic risk factors leading to the development of Crohn's disease. Specifically, using a novel approach, the authors identified that the PHOX2B, NCF4 and ATG16L1 genes constitute genetic risk factors for Crohn's disease. In addition, their study identified two regions of the genome where genetic risk factors are located but no known genes were implicated – further work will be necessary to identify the causal genes in these regions.

More than 1 million Americans and some 170,000 Canadians have Crohn's or colitis, known collectively as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The study's authors represent the IBD Genetics Consortium, which is funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health. In addition to the Montreal Heart Institute and Université de Montréal, the Consortium's member institutions include the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, the University of Chicago, the Johns Hopkins University, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Toronto, and Yale University.

Because IBD tends to run in families and is more frequent in certain ethnic populations, especially Ashkenazi Jews, scientists have long suspected a significant genetic component. Although previous genetic studies found a link between Crohn's disease and mutations in a gene known as CARD15, those mutations alone are not considered to account for the entire genetic component of disease. To identify additional genes that are associated with IBD, the international team of researchers scanned the genome—all of 22,000 or so genes— by testing more than 300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, in people with Crohn's disease and in healthy controls. The comparison of these SNPs (common genetic variants) between patient and control groups identified multiple SNPs that were strongly associated with Crohn's disease. These findings were then tested in two additional sets of patients and healthy controls in order to confirm their results.

... more about:
»ATG16L1 »Component »Crohn' »IBD »SNP

According to the corresponding author John D. Rioux, the findings highlight numerous biological pathways not previously thought to play a role in Crohn's disease. "The identification of the PHOX2B gene in this study, for example, may implicate a role for neuroendocrine cells of the intestinal epithelium as having a role to play in Crohn's Disease. In addition, the identification of the NCF4 gene indicates that altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, important in the generation of an effective anti-microbial response, may lead to increased risk to developing Crohn's disease". The fact that the authors also found strong association of the ATG16L1 gene provides further evidence that an individual's response to microbes has an influence on susceptibility to Crohn's disease.

Specifically, in addition to demonstrating its association to disease, these authors have shown that ATG16L1 is essential for the normal autophagic process used to degrade worn-out cellular components and help eliminate some pathogenic bacteria. "We propose that genetic variation in the ATG16L1 gene leads to alterations in how the body uses autophagy and therefore may result in increased persistence of both cellular and bacterial components, leading to inappropriate immune activation and increased risk of Crohn's disease" adds Dr. Rioux.

The findings reported in this study are expected to not only improve on the biological understanding of disease but should also have a long-term impact on clinical practice. According to Dr. Edmond-Jean Bernard, co-author and gastroenterologist at the Hotel Dieu Hospital in Montreal and the Université de Montréal "the multiple genetic risk factors we've identified provide important molecular targets for current functional studies aimed at understanding the disease and important targets for drug development to improve therapy of Crohn's disease in the future." Dr. Stephen P. James, M.D., director of the Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition at the National Institutes of Health's NIDDK continued by saying that "these important discoveries not only offer new hope for better therapies for patients with Crohn's disease, they also highlight the promise of the human genome project and subsequent investments by the NIH in large scale, collaborative research projects to unravel the causes of, and hopefully better treatments for complex, enigmatic diseases".

Sophie Langlois | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.umontreal.ca

Further reports about: ATG16L1 Component Crohn' IBD SNP

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute

nachricht Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>