Vitiligo is a chronic condition in which melanocytes (the cells that make pigment) in the skin are destroyed. As a result, white patches appear on the skin in different parts of the body. Similar patches also appear on both the mucous membranes (tissues that line the inside of the mouth and nose), and perhaps in the retina (inner layer of the eyeball). The hair that grows on areas affected by vitiligo sometimes turns white.
The researchers began a search for genes involved in vitiligo almost a decade ago with the help of the Vitiligo Society in the United Kingdom. “In the beginning we were looking for multiple family members with vitiligo,” says Richard Spritz, M.D., director of the Human Medical Genetics Program at the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center and lead investigator for the study. The researchers sent a questionnaire to members of the society, asking them about their own vitiligo and whether other family members were affected. As part of the questionnaire, they also asked about other autoimmune diseases. What they learned was that vitiligo was “very highly associated” with a number of other autoimmune diseases, mostly thyroid disease, but also pernicious anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus, Addison’s disease, and adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.
That finding prompted the researchers to study families with multiple affected members and to look for similarities in genes among those who were affected. By searching the genome, they discovered a gene, NALP1, that was key to predisposing people to vitiligo and other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune thyroid disease, says Dr. Spritz. “We know that about 20 percent of people with vitiligo also get autoimmune thyroid disease, and this gene may be involved in mediating both of those,” he says.
Dr. Spritz says the implications of this finding are exciting. The identified gene controls part of what is called the innate immune system, which is our body’s first defense against infection, he says. “When we are attacked by viruses or bacteria, the innate immune system stimulates the inflammatory pathways and calls the rest of the immune system to action. NALP1 is probably a receptor for bacterial or viral signals. We don’t know what these signals are, but now that we know what the gene is, we can use that knowledge to search for the signals that trigger autoimmune disease.”
“All autoimmune diseases involve the interaction of multiple genes and environmental triggers,” he continues. “You are born with your genes, but you are not born with these diseases. Something happens. We don’t know what the triggers are that start these diseases, but if we did, maybe we could avoid them or even block the process. In fact, it may even be possible to actually stop the autoimmune disease,” he says.
The most immediate application of this research might be for the disease that began the research: vitiligo. Doctors usually treat vitiligo with ultraviolet (UV) light to stimulate skin repigmentation. Scientists also know that there is one medication available (approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis) that blocks an inflammatory pathway thought to be controlled by NALP1. The possibility of combining a drug with UV light to improve vitiligo treatment is intriguing, and Dr. Spritz is now interested in finding out more about how the medication might affect people with vitiligo.
NIAMS Director Stephen I. Katz, M.D., Ph.D., calls the discovery of the NALP1-autoimmunity connection an important advance in the understanding of autoimmune diseases that collectively affect an estimated 15 million to 25 million Americans. “The more we understand about these diseases, including the genes that predispose to them and the environmental factors that trigger them, the closer we come to better treatments and even preventive measures,” he says.
Additional support for this research was provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the U.K. Vitiligo Society and the National Vitiligo Foundation.
The mission of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), a part of the Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health, is to support research into the causes, treatment and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases. For more information about NIAMS, call the information clearinghouse at (301) 495-4484 or (877) 22-NIAMS (free call) or visit the NIAMS Web site at http://www.niams.nih.gov.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation's Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University
How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy