Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University's Massey Cancer Center studying the interaction between the immune system and cancer cells have identified interferon gamma as one of the signaling proteins involved with tumor relapse.
The findings may help researchers develop tailored vaccines and other immunotherapeutic strategies to fight a number of cancers. Immunotherapy involves the manipulation of the immune system – by introducing an antibody or lymphocytes, or immunization with a tumor vaccine – to recognize and eradicate tumor cells.
Using a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, researchers found that interferon gamma, a cytokine or chemical messenger that is produced by cells of the immune system upon activation, plays a role in tumor relapse. In humans, interferon gamma is also produced by white blood cells of the immune system in response to invasion by pathogens or tumors in order to protect the host against infection or cancers. Production of interferon gamma by lymphocytes against tumors is considered a sign of good prognosis; however, recent study findings indicate that this may not be the case. The findings were reported in the March 2007 issue of the European Journal of Immunology, the official journal of the European Federation of Immunological Societies.
"By understanding the molecular mechanisms involved with tumor relapse, we can create tailored vaccines that can induce specific types of immune responses in patients, rather than inducing a broad range of immune responses - some of which may be detrimental or may induce tumor relapse," said lead investigator, Masoud H. Manjili, D.V.M., Ph.D., a member scientist with the Massey Cancer Center.
"Ultimately, we hope to offer a new polypeptide vaccine approach that induces tumor killing without causing HER-2/neu loss. Loss of HER-2/neu is a mechanism that tumors utilize to escape the immune-mediated destruction," he said.
Since 2000, Manjili and his colleagues have been employing animal models of breast cancer to evaluate anti-tumor efficacy of a vaccine formulation they created. This vaccine formulation combines a heat shock protein 110 (HSP110), as an adjuvant, with a tumor antigen HER-2/neu, as a protein target expressed in breast tumors. Adjuvants are agents that are able to modify another agent – basically working as a chemical catalyst.
The work is supported by the National Cancer Institute and the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation.
Manjili, who is an assistant professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in the VCU School of Medicine, collaborated with VCU researchers Maciej Kmieciak, Ph.D., with the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Catherine I. Dumur, Ph.D., with the Department of Pathology; and Keith L. Knutson, Ph.D., with the Department of Immunology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine in Rochester, Minn.
Sathya Achia-Abraham | EurekAlert!
Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Migrating Cells: Folds in the cell membrane supply material for necessary blebs
23.11.2017 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
23.11.2017 | Information Technology
23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
23.11.2017 | Life Sciences