Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

LLNL researchers review bio detection technologies

01.03.2007
In an effort to detect biological threats quickly and accurately, a number of detection technologies have been developed.

Researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory review several of the latest technologies in the most recent issue (Issue 3, 2007), of the British journal “The Analyst,” which appears online at http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/AN/Article.asp?Type=CurrentIssue.

“It’s important to provide a summary of the latest technologies and approaches for sensing systems and platforms that could lead to bioagent detectors for responders to use in the field,” said LLNL’s lead author Jeffrey Tok. Other authors include Nicholas Fischer and Theodore Tarasow of LLNL’s BioSecurity and Nanosciences Laboratory.

One technique, previously described by Tok and colleagues, involves using a barcode system, similar to the barcodes used on retail products, to detect biological agents in the field. Nanowires built from sub-micrometer layers of different metals, including gold, silver and nickel, are able to act as “barcodes” for detecting a variety of pathogens, such as anthrax, smallpox, ricin and botulinum toxin. The approach could simultaneously identify multiple pathogens via their unique fluorescent characteristics.

... more about:
»BIO »Detection »Immunoassay »sensing

Another detection strategy involves the development of electrical current-based readout of the nanowires for protein and virus sensing. The wires are arranged as field-effect transistors (FETs), where slight variations at the surface produce a change in conductivity. Developers of this technology predict that a high-density nanowire-circuit array geared toward pathogen detection could be built on a large scale suitable for biosecurity surveillance.

Physical, chemical and optical properties that can be tuned to detect a particular bioagent are key to microbead-based immunoassay sensing systems. A unique spectral signature or fingerprint can be tied to each type of bead. Beads have been joined with antibodies to specific biowarfare agents. This method has been demonstrated in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), a technology developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers. APDS contains an aerosol collector to constantly “inhale” particles from its surrounding environment for analysis.

Microarray-based immunoassay sensing approaches can be used to detect bacteria, such as the E. coli recently found in spinach and other fresh-packed greens. This approach can differentiate pathogens from harmless bacteria. In an analogous technique called aptamer microarray, short single strand chains of DNA (less than 100 nucleotides) are developed that bind to target molecules and fold into complex structures. The folding event results in an easy-to-read electrical charge. This binding-induced signaling strategy is particularly well suited for sensing in complex samples.

In a whole-cell-based immunoassay sensing system, an engineered B lymphocyte cell in which both pathogen-sensing membrane-bound antibodies and an associated light-emitting reporting system are all expressed in vivo. The B lymphocyte cell-based sensing system, termed CANARY, centers on an easily expressed calcium-sensitive bioluminescent protein from the Aequoria victoria jellyfish. When exposed to targeted biowarfare compounds, an increase in photons was observed within the B lymphocyte cells in a matter of seconds. The photon changes can then be easily detected using an inexpensive optical system.

“The ability to miniaturize and adapt traditional bench-top immunoassay protocols to a fully automated micro-or nano-fluidic chip holds tremendous promise to enable multiplex, efficient, cost-effective and accurate pathogen sensing systems for both biodefense and medical applications,” Tok said.

Anne Stark | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.llnl.gov/PAO

Further reports about: BIO Detection Immunoassay sensing

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
22.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Chemists at FAU successfully demonstrate imine hydrogenation with inexpensive main group metal
22.05.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

Im Focus: Computer-Designed Customized Regenerative Heart Valves

Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.

Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...

Im Focus: Light-induced superconductivity under high pressure

A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supersonic waves may help electronics beat the heat

18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Keeping a Close Eye on Ice Loss

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

CrowdWater: An App for Flood Research

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>