This genetic study, published today in the journal Nature, was led by MUHC endocrinologist Dr. Rob Sladek at the McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre together with Dr. Constantin Polychronakos at the MUHC and Dr. Philippe Froguel at the Pasteur Institute (Lille, France). The study also involved scientists at the University of Montreal, Imperial College (London, UK) and the Montreal Diabetes Research Centre.
Sladek and his colleagues systematically searched the entire human genome to identify genes that predispose individuals to developing diabetes. By comparing hundreds of thousands of DNA fragments from patients with diabetes to those from non-diabetic individuals, they discovered that patients who developed diabetes shared common gene variants on chromosomes 8, 10 and 11.
“Of the four genes we have identified, two are involved in the development or function of insulin-secreting cells and one plays a role in the transport of zinc, an important mineral required for the production of insulin,” says Sladek.
“We used a totally new concept and technology to look for the genes,” says Polychronakos. “It worked very successfully and our findings are proof of principle that these approaches can be used to dissect the genetic component of other complex diseases and, eventually, other complex human traits.”
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in adults and is becoming increasingly common in children. It is caused by the decreased production or effect of insulin, a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas and which regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. It has been known for some time that for Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. The group’s new finding helps identify the population at the highest risk of developing this disease.
The research was funded by a grant from Genome Canada and Genome Quebec headed by Dr. Barry I. Posner, professor of Medicine at McGill University and the MUHC; and by a grant from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation to the Montreal Diabetes Research Centre, headed by Dr. Marc Prentki, professor of Medicine at the University of Montreal.
"In the last few years, advances in technology pioneered in Quebec, have made complex genetic analyses, such as those used in this study, possible," stated Genome Quebec President Paul L’Archevêque. "Without these advances an the collaboration between institutes, this research would not have been possible. The experimental approach used in this study, may help lead to the unraveling of other complex genetic diseases."
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC) is a world-renowned biomedical and health-care hospital research centre. Located in Montreal, Quebec, the institute is the research arm of the MUHC, a university health center affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. The institute supports over 500 researchers, nearly 1000 graduate and post-doctoral students and operates more than 300 laboratories devoted to a broad spectrum of fundamental and clinical research. The Research Institute operates at the forefront of knowledge, innovation and technology and is inextricably linked to the clinical programs of the MUHC, ensuring that patients benefit directly from the latest research-based knowledge. For further details visit: www.muhc.ca/research.
The McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) is a comprehensive academic health institution with an international reputation for excellence in clinical programs, research and teaching. The MUHC is a merger of five teaching hospitals affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University––the Montreal Children’s, Montreal General, Royal Victoria, and Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, as well as the Montreal Chest Institute. Building on the tradition of medical leadership of the founding hospitals, the goal of the MUHC is to provide patient care based on the most advanced knowledge in the health care field, and to contribute to the development of new knowledge. www.muhc.ca
Génome Québec has the mission to mobilize academic and industrial sectors with regard to genomics and proteomics research. This private non-profit organization invests and manages funds totalling over $380 million from both the private and public sectors. Génome Québec presently manages projects in six major sectors, that of human health, bioinformatics, ethics, the environment, forestry and agricultural sciences. For more details on Génome Québec and genomics, visit out web site at: www.genomequebec.com.
Genome Canada is a private, non-profit corporation, and the primary funding and information source relating to genomics and proteomics in Canada. Its principal goal is to enable Canada to become a world leader in genomics and proteomics research. Its mandate is to develop and implement a national strategy in genomics and proteomics research for the benefit of all Canadians. For this purpose, it has received $600 million in funding from the Canadian government and co-funding from other partners, allowing it to invest a total of $1.4 billion in 115 innovative research projects and technology platforms. To learn more about Genome Canada, please visit our Web site at www.genomecanada.ca.
Christine Zeindler | EurekAlert!
Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
16.01.2017 | Information Technology
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering