The researchers said their findings suggest that targeting Olig2 could offer a potential avenue for treatment that would kill tumor cells without affecting normal tissue.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators Charles Stiles and David Rowitch and their colleagues reported their findings in the February 15, 2007 issue of the journal Neuron, published by Cell Press.
Olig2 is a "transcription factor"—a protein that regulates the activity of genes. Prior studies had indicated that it plays a central role in enabling neural stem cells to replicate during embryonic brain development. Also, studies have suggested that brain tumors might arise from aberrant neural stem cells or the neural progenitor cells to which they give rise.
Analyzing tissue from human gliomas, Stiles, Rowitch, and their colleagues discovered that Olig2 is activated in the stem and progenitor cells found in the tumors. In a mouse model of malignant glioma, they found that knocking out Olig2 function prevented tumor formation in 91 percent of the animals.
Their analysis of the role of Olig2 in both tumor cells and normal neural stem cells revealed that it plays a key role in enabling cell growth. Specifically, they found that Olig2 represses the gene for a cell-replication "brake" called p21, which normally inhibits cell growth. Thus, they concluded that Olig2 is a "unifying feature of normal cell cells and malignant glioma" and a "gateway" gene for brain tumor development.
"Lineage-restricted pathways that regulate brain tumor behavior may represent more specific therapeutic targets with little potential to affect off-target cell types," commented the researchers.
"Brain tumors remain a major cause of cancer-related death despite advances in surgery, imaging, and conventional treatment modalities," they wrote. "This emphasizes the need to develop novel medical strategies based on a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying gliomagenesis."
They wrote that "our findings identify this core transcriptional regulator as an important candidate for antitumor therapeutics." While transcription factors are not generally considered useful targets for anti-cancer drugs, there are multiple ways that Olig2 could be inhibited, as well as ways to target other components of the regulatory pathway by which it exerts its influence on tumor growth, wrote the researchers.
Erin Doonan | EurekAlert!
What happens in the cell nucleus after fertilization
06.12.2016 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering