In fact in recent years new guidelines at patent offices, legal developments, commercial sentiment and the growing volume of genetic information in the public domain have together raised the bar on patentability of genes and other genetic material.
In particular, rigorous examination and prohibitive costs are discouraging speculative patent applications in Europe.
The findings are the result of 18 months of research funded by the European Community and carried out by Dr Michael M Hopkins, Dr Surya Mahdi, Mr Pari Patel and Professor Sandy M Thomas at SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, at the University of Sussex, UK.
The race to patent human DNA began in the 1980s, when scientists in industry and academia started unraveling the human genetic code, culminating in the publication of a full draft of the human genome in 2001. As the human genome project published its results, so biotech businesses, pharmaceutical companies, and universities rushed to file patent applications to protect their stake in a fast-developing field. This stoked fears that DNA sequences important for research into the causes of disease such as cancer or diabetes would no longer be available for study, or that resulting drugs and diagnostics might only be available at excessive prices.
The authors identified 15,600 cases of inventions where patents had been filed claiming human DNA sequences (tiny strands of genetic material) at the world's leading Patent Offices in the USA, Europe and Japan.
They then interviewed patent holders - including some of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies - to find out what they intended to do with their patents. Their findings include:
•To date, just one third of these inventions have actually been granted patents by one of the three patent offices studied - others were refused, have still to be processed or have been withdrawn by the applicant because the invention was considered to be no longer technically or commercially viable.
•The US patent office has granted far more of these patents, which has led to concerns in the USA about access to research and diagnostics, particularly for some cancers. By contrast the patent offices in Japan and Europe have only granted between 3% and 5% of patent applications. Furthermore researchers in Europe benefit from laws which allow the use of this knowledge for non commercial research without patent infringement.
•Patent examiners are more stringent, particularly in Europe and Japan, in rejecting applications that aren't supported by sufficient biological evidence.
•Commercial interest in DNA patent applications remains, but increasingly the DNA is just a part of a more complex invention. Overall, such filings are likely to be made in much lower numbers than seen in the past.
Professor Thomas says: "A combination of policy change and developments in the commercial and scientific environment means that obtaining patents on DNA sequences has become generally more difficult and in some cases less commercially attractive. We believe these changes are in the interests of academic and commercial researchers, as well as patients.”
Dr Hopkins says: “Patents are still necessary, however, as medical research is expensive and society needs to reward and encourage ingenuity. Developing a drug, for example, costs several hundred million dollars. Patent offices have focused increasingly on giving due rewards while rejecting overly broad or frivolous applications."
Maggie Clune | alfa
Link Discovered between Immune System, Brain Structure and Memory
26.04.2017 | Universität Basel
Researchers develop eco-friendly, 4-in-1 catalyst
25.04.2017 | Brown University
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences
26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy