Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Brown Cancer Biologists Identify Major Player in Cell Growth

08.02.2007
The transcription factor GABP – a member of a family of crucial gene-regulating proteins – is required to jump-start the process of cell division, according to research from The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital. The work, published in Nature Cell Biology, uncovers a new way to control cell growth and points up potential targets for cancer treatments.

When cells go about the business of dividing, they can get sidelined. Maybe there aren’t enough nutrients. Maybe there aren’t the right signals to resume multiplying. Either way, cells go quiet.

What can restart cell division – the process that drives the development of embryos, the renewal of hair, skin and blood, and the creation of cancer – is a single transcription factor called GABP, according to new research from The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital.

The work, published online in Nature Cell Biology, introduces a new pathway that can be manipulated to control cell growth. Since cell growth is a fundamental biological process, the research may shed light on everything from miscarriages to muscular dystrophy. The main application, however, is cancer. Since a key characteristic of cancer cells is unchecked growth, the research identifies potential targets for new treatments.

... more about:
»GABP »Rosmarin »cell division »transcription

“As a scientist and a physician, I am tremendously excited,” said Alan Rosmarin, M.D., an associate professor in the Department of Medicine and the Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry at Brown and director of clinical oncology research for Lifespan, Rhode Island’s largest health care system. “This discovery not only adds to our basic understanding of cell division, it could lead to better cancer drugs. And they’re needed. Cancer touches everyone.”

During the cell cycle, the four-phase process of cell division, there is a period when the biochemical brakes are put on and cells become inactive. Then the process is kick-started and cells move into the so-called S phase, when DNA is duplicated. This is a critical juncture. If genes are missing or broken, these alterations are passed on to the new cell – and could result in disability or in diseases such as cancer.

So biologists are keenly interested in identifying the accelerators that rev-up cell division. Ets transcription factors, a family of gene-regulating proteins that are major players in embryonic and cancer development, seemed obvious culprits. Rosmarin, a hematologist-oncologist, studies one member of the Ets family called GABP. This transcription factor helps make a variety of cells, including white blood cells. If those cells develop abnormally, leukemia results.

But the exact function of GABP in the cell cycle wasn’t known. Rosmarin wanted to find out. So he and members of his laboratory created mice that carried a mutation – tiny DNA sequences were inserted into their GABP-making gene. These DNA bits would serve as a time bomb of sorts, deleting a critical piece of the gene when given a chemical signal.

From these mice, Rosmarin and his team grew fibroblasts – common connective tissue cells – in a Petri dish with nutrient-rich serum and watched them grow. When they detonated their time bomb, GABP was disrupted, and the fibroblasts’ ability to divide was dramatically reduced. At the same time, other genes known to restart cell division were unchanged.

The team confirmed GABP’s critical role in cell growth another way. Simply forcing dormant cells to make GABP, they found, was enough to rouse cells from their slumber and get them to grow again.

“So we’ve found a new pathway to control cell growth,” Rosmarin said. “Now that we know a way to disrupt GABP and stop division, there is the possibility that a drug can be made to do the same thing in cancer cells.”

Zhong-Fa Yang, an instructor in medicine at Brown and a postdoctoral research fellow at Rhode Island Hospital, was the lead author of the journal article. Stephanie Mott, a Rhode Island Hospital research associate, assisted with the experiments.

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Center for Research Resources and the Herbert W. Saint ’49 Fund at Brown University funded the work.

Editors: Brown University has a fiber link television studio available for domestic and international live and taped interviews and maintains an ISDN line for radio interviews. For more information, call the Office of Media Relations at (401) 863-2476.

Wendy Lawton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.brown.edu

Further reports about: GABP Rosmarin cell division transcription

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity
22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden

nachricht The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet
22.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>